There is a long history of research on the causes and consequences of stress among law enforcement officers. Research on stress has demonstrated that officers’ perceptions of organizational stressors (e.g., administrative burdens, perceptions of unfairness, organizational politics, and work hours) are far more impactful than operational stressors (e.g., danger, exposure to violence, etc.). Moreover, organizational stressors have been linked to a variety of adverse outcomes including poor health, quality of life, and performance as well as psychological distress and sleep problems.
Our study is designed to enhance officer health and wellness and promote organizational effectiveness through gaining a greater understanding of the pathways between organizational stressors, individual (e.g. personality, resilience, etc.) and organizational characteristics (organizational support, etc.) and both negative and positive outcomes. We will also attempt to differentiate unique police and corrections officer stressors and identify individual and organizational stress mitigation strategies.
In 2014, the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS Office) and the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) provided funding to the National Police Foundation (NPF) to develop and maintain an Averted School Violence (ASV) database. The ASV database collects, analyzes, and publishes averted and completed acts of school violence that have occurred since the April 20, 1999 attack on Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado. The data is drawn from open source media articles, as well as from law enforcement, school officials, and others entering reports into the ASV database.
The ASV database serves as a resource to law enforcement, school, mental health professionals, and others involved in preventing school violence. In 2019, NPF conducted a preliminary analysis of the 51 averted cases in the ASV database to identify basic information about the schools, perpetrators and suspects, weapons, plots, and incidents. The report, published through the COPS Office, can be found here. NPF also conducted a comparison of 51 averted and 51 completed school attacks from the ASV database, in 2019, to identify important similarities and differences between the types of incidents. The report, published through the COPS Office, can be found here.
Recent evidence has established the importance of procedural justice in police contacts with the community and the important role of community-oriented policing (COP) in creating perceptions of fair and effective policing. However, the key components of COP have not heretofore been examined as also relevant in jail settings. Yet, jails are communities in themselves by definition (a group of people who live together). COP is based upon a philosophy of shared responsibility for safe communities and the importance of community engagement and problem solving. In jails, it is clear that jail management and inmate programming involve core COP components and activities, and that there is an emphasis on procedural justice. In jails, re-entry programming begins on day one, given the short time most individuals spend in local jails (nationwide average is approximately 25 days). Sheriffs and jail administrators know that inmate programming is important for maintaining order, as well as reducing recidivism, substance use, mental health symptoms, and successful re-integration in communities. In this project, we identify a range of innovations consistent with the framework of COP, and principles of procedural justice.
Recent evidence has established a strong confidence-accuracy relationship for photo array identifications. However, the relationship between eyewitness confidence and accuracy has not been established for show-ups (a procedure in which a witness views a single suspect). Also, little is known about the role latency (time to make an identification) may play in predicting accuracy in show-up procedures. The National Police Foundation is conducting a three-phase study in order to update our knowledge of changes in the field related to eyewitness identification practices and the extent to which these are evidence-based.
This study provides important guidance for agencies regarding present approaches to crime hot spots. It responds to the President’s Task Force (p. 40) conclusion that “Police interventions must be implemented with strong policies and training in place, rooted in an understanding of procedural justice.” The project identifies whether the use of procedural justice training can enhance both the crime control effectiveness of hot spots policing, and its ability to achieve effectiveness while encouraging positive legitimacy evaluations. The study also serves as an important next step in integrating evidence-based practices in hot spots policing with knowledge about the ways in which police can increase levels of procedural justice to enhance citizen perceptions of police legitimacy.
Bridges to Life (BTL) is a national program that provides an opportunity for inmates to engage in self-reflection that can lead them to become more self-accountable and responsible. A volunteer coordinator meets weekly with participants in small group circles over the course of 14 weeks. Discussions focus on accountability, repentance, forgiveness, and reconciliation. In between sessions, participants read required materials and answer study questions to be discussed in the next small group discussion.
However, BTL’s contact with participants ends when they are released from prison and the program has never tracked its participants in the community to see how they fare after release. The National Police Foundation is evaluating the effectiveness of the BTL program. The study will provide a rigorous assessment of the effectiveness of BTL and highlight obstacles parolees face upon release that could be used to strengthen reentry programs.
The National Police Foundation developed a voluntary and anonymous reporting system that enables law enforcement personnel to read about and anonymously share stories of close calls or “near misses.” A near miss is defined as a situation where a law enforcement officer could have been seriously injured or killed, but harm or death was averted. Each near miss incident provides lessons learned to protect other officers who encounter similar situations, but only if the incident was reported and shared. Our mission is to enable and encourage law enforcement personnel to share their near miss experiences so the lessons learned from them can be used by other officers and incorporated systematically into agencies’ training, policy, and equipment decisions to prevent injuries and fatalities.
Although the use of body-worn cameras (BWCs) has expanded rapidly, the capacity to efficiently analyze the enormous amount of data collected by BWCs lags far behind. As a result, the wider potential of BWCs to improve practices and outcomes of policing has gone largely unrealized. The purpose of this project is two-fold: (1) develop novel techniques to automate analysis of BWC recordings of police-community interactions and evaluate officers’ adherence to principles of procedural justice and; (2) use a randomized controlled trial to assess the accuracy of those techniques by systematically comparing them to evaluations of BWCs recordings done manually by human raters under conditions of high and low procedural justice.
The primary goal of the National Law Enforcement Applied Research and Data Platform (Platform) is to provide law enforcement executives with actionable survey data to inform policy, procedure, and strategy. Internal officer, professional staff, and community/police-community interaction surveys allow agency decision-makers to assess their department from multiple perspectives. Data is provided near real-time, with agency data uploaded to the Policing Dashboards Site within five days after the survey closes. Agencies are also provided a written report within 10 business days. The Platform offers agencies an opportunity to benchmark their results against departments of similar size and geographic location.
Evidence suggests that pedestrian stops may be an effective police tactic when applied to violent crime hot spots. But it is also one of the most controversial tactics that police use. Frequently debated is whether the tactic causes more harm than good, especially in minority and disadvantaged communities. Yet, to our knowledge, there has not been a randomized trial to directly assess the effects of pedestrian stops. The National Police Foundation (NPF) and George Mason University are conducting a randomized control trial with a large police agency to test the idea that, after giving a special unit of officers training in procedural justice and constitutional issues, stops can be conducted in such a way that crime is reduced without alienating the community or antagonizing those persons stopped.
With state courts facing record-breaking caseloads and tightening budgets, jurisdictions around the country have begun to seek alternatives to traditional case processing as early as possible in the criminal justice process. One existing alternative is prosecutor-led diversion, a model which allows jurisdictions to reroute low-level offenders from traditional case-processing at the front-end of the justice process, in many cases prior to formal charge or arraignment. Although prosecutor-led diversion programs (PDPs) have been a part of the American legal landscape for several decades, there is little to no descriptive literature of the model and only sporadic impact evaluations of specific programs. In response, the Center for Court Innovation, the Rand Corporation and the Association of Prosecuting Attorneys proposed a 30-month national, multi-method study with goals to synthesize existing knowledge of PDPs through an original meta-analysis, produce a rich understanding of existing programs through in-depth case studies of programs in 11 sites nationwide, determine the national prevalence of the model and provide a portrait of program goals, target populations, and policies through a representative prosecutor survey, and test PDP effectiveness in reducing recidivism, incarceration, psychosocial problems, and costs to the society and the economy through a prospective impact evaluation of 3-4 programs.
Persistent lack of community-based mental health resources available to people in crisis has resulted in frequent need for police intervention. Law enforcement agencies across the country are turning to Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) and other specialized police response models that focus on cross-sector collaboration between law enforcement, mental health agencies, and advocates. While these efforts have proliferated and show promise in meeting goals, they are largely typical of medium and large departments. However, the vast majority of police agencies are small and may not have the resources to fund CIT training, may not have mental health resources close at hand, or receive the numbers of calls involving persons with mental illness or substance abuse issues to justify expensive programs. The National Police Foundation (NPF) is examining the kinds of approaches that small law enforcement agencies are adopting to respond in appropriate ways to persons with behavioral health issues.
The Wilmington Strategies for Policing Innovation (SPI) project stems from innovative techniques of the Wilmington (DE) Police Department responding to an increase in shooting events. The project involves integrating gunshot technology with existing camera systems to improve investigative efficacy and clearance rates for fatal and non-fatal shootings. When gunshot technology (ShotSpotter) detects shots fired, surrounding CCTV cameras will physically pan toward the location of the shots. The Police Foundation is analyzing WPD data to assess outcomes of this endeavor, as well as surveying residents to capture whether confidence in police response changes.
The National Police Foundation is evaluating a project of the Texas hospital chain, Texas Health Resources (THR), which is expanding their sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) program. With funding from the Communities Foundation of Texas, THR has expanded its SANE training program, hired additional SANEs, and made sexual assault forensic exams more readily available at small rural hospitals as well as large urban emergency departments.
The National Police Foundation serves as the National Coordinator for the U.S. Department of Justice Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) Preventing Violence Against Law Enforcement and Ensuring Officer Resilience and Survivability (VALOR) Officer Safety and Wellness pilot project. In this capacity, NPF is providing project management, coordination, data collection, research and evaluation, and other support to the Arlington (Texas), Alexandria (Virginia), and Tampa (Florida) Police Departments. These three agencies were selected in collaboration with the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) to serve as the pilot sites. Project goals are to facilitate the delivery of comprehensive officer safety training and technical assistance (TTA) to the three departments and to measure and evaluate the effectiveness of those resources in improving officer safety and wellness. In addition to the pilot site projects, NPF was also charged with developing and administering a national survey to examine officer safety and wellness training and resource needs of law enforcement agencies across the U.S., which was recently completed (results viewable in publications section below).
The “Accreditation of Mexican Law Enforcement Agencies, Emergency Communications Centers and Police Academies to International Standards”, also referred to as the “Enhancing Professionalism in Mexican Law Enforcement Agencies” project is a multi-year initiative of the National Police Foundation (NPF) and the Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies, Inc. (CALEA) with funding support from the United States Department of State Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL). The purpose of the project is to improve the professionalization of Mexican law enforcement agencies by increasing the number of Mexican agencies that are accredited through one of CALEA’s accreditation programs. NPF provides on-site and remote technical assistance to law enforcement agencies, training centers, and communications centers throughout the stages of the accreditation process in order to prepare agencies for an official accreditation hearing before CALEA’s Board of Commissioners, in which they are awarded official accreditation status upon demonstrating meeting the required standards.
At a time when communities are seeking to play an active role in public safety, it is essential that law enforcement find ways to integrate community needs and feedback into the traditional data-driven crime monitoring process. CompStat360 (CS360) is the next generation of police performance management, designed to tackle the unique challenges police departments face today. Building on the foundations that have helped transform police departments worldwide, the new model takes a proactive and problem-solving approach, which emphasizes community collaboration, responsiveness, strategic problem solving, and community satisfaction. The goal of the model is to provide police departments with a more complete picture of public safety and promote proactive community collaboration.
The National Police Foundation (NPF) worked with the City of Central Falls, RI, (the smallest and poorest city in the state) to identify, apply for, and ultimately receive an Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) Grant for School Safety and Security. This grant provides for three years of funding to create and implement one city-wide school safety and security program for all public and charter schools in Central Falls.
The National Police Foundation is working with the Council of State Governments (CSG) Justice Center, in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Justice’s Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) to promote and expand their mental health/law enforcement learning sites. These are select sites with effective and specialized police-based responses that serve as models to other jurisdictions around the country. Selected sites deliver peer-to-peer learning through a diverse cross-section of model strategies and examples of successful collaborations between law enforcement and mental health agencies.
The National Law Enforcement Roadway Safety Program (NLERSP) is an evidence-based and data-driven program that provides training and technical assistance to state, local, and tribal law enforcement with the goal of reducing the number of officers injured or killed on the nation’s roadways. The NLERSP is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Assistance, and managed by the National Police Foundation in partnership with the Institute for Intergovernmental Research.
The NLERSP provides a suite of no-cost, in-person training courses for executives, patrol officers, and trainers. Additionally, the NLERSP offers customized technical assistance to agencies to improve their existing training, policies, procedures, and programs related to law enforcement roadway safety. This assistance can include reviewing and developing agency policies on roadway-related issues, reviewing and assessing an agency’s roadway safety training, assisting with replicating best practices in agencies, and providing research translation services related to roadway safety research.
Over the past two decades, the United States has faced remarkably low clearance rates (22.3%) for Part One offenses, which negatively impact communities and police alike. To improve the quality and equity of investigative outcomes, the National Police Foundation, in collaboration with the National Criminal Justice Training Center at Fox Valley Technical College (NCJTC/FVTC), the Prosecutors’ Center for Excellence (PCE), and other partners, provides training and technical assistance (TTA) to the departments of hard-hit neighborhoods under the National Resource and Technical Assistance Center for Improving Law Enforcement Investigations (NRTAC) initiative. The NRTAC additionally provides onsite assessments and ongoing technical assistance to multiple Crime Gun Intelligence Center (CGIC) sites participating in the Bureau of Justice Assistance’s (BJA) Local Law Enforcement Crime Gun Intelligence Center Integration Initiative. This initiative supports local jurisdictions in working with their ATF partners to utilize intelligence, technology, and community engagement to swiftly identify the unlawful use of firearms and effectively prosecute perpetrators engaged in violent crime.
On April 7, 2017, the United States, the Mayor and City Council of Baltimore, and the Baltimore (Maryland) Police Department (BPD) entered into a consent decree to resolve the findings of a civil rights investigation conducted by the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) into the practices of BPD. The BPD continues to work toward the measures outlined in the consent decree and toward reforming policing in Baltimore to increase community trust and police legitimacy and to reduce violent crime in the city.
To support the efforts of the City of Baltimore and the BPD in implementation of the consent decree, through funding from the Ford Foundation, the National Police Foundation (NPF) currently serves as a Technical Advisor to BPD. NPF is providing subject matter expertise and other support to BPD on a broad array of reforms the department is currently undertaking. The NPF team has supported BPD in completing a Technology Resource Study and a Staffing Study, and supported BPD’s development of a Community Policing Plan. Currently, NPF is assisting BPD with implementation and evaluation of “Ethical Policing is Courageous (EPIC)” training, a peer intervention program.
Technology is ubiquitous in public safety. New and emerging technologies can provide immeasurable technical, tactical, and outcome benefits to law enforcement agencies and the communities they serve. Agencies have deployed them to identify innovative and evidence-based solutions to chronic crime challenges, enhance partnerships and services, and enhance public safety. The National Police Foundation (NPF) and their partner, SEARCH, support agencies by providing resources and technical assistance around these technologies and strategies around building digital trust with their communities.
The National Police Foundation believes that some of the best lessons learned and improvements in law enforcement come from thorough, independent and critical reviews of incidents. After-action reviews (AARs) provide particularly objective observations, completed by independent experts who emphasize learning and improvement over assigning fault or blame. When law enforcement agencies respond to a mass violence attack, mass demonstration, or other large-scale incident, the Critical Incident Response Program can provide independent assessments of the event and targeted technical assistance. The purpose is to provide an independent, thorough review of the practices, protocols and systems surrounding law enforcement/public safety and the community in order to identify lessons learned that can not only inform the first responders involved in the incident, but also have national implications, and offer technical assistance in priority areas. National Police Foundation’s Critical Incident Response & Technical Assistance provides services ranging from peer-to-peer exchanges to in-depth review and analysis, all in efforts to assist departments in evolving their preparation and response to major incidents.
The National Police Foundation (NPF) is partnering with the Joyce Foundation and 21CP Solutions to assess the reach, impact, challenges, and successes of the 21st Century Policing Task Force Report (21CPTFR) principles. In May 2015, the report delivered 156 recommendations and action items to law enforcement agencies and the federal government. These were organized within six pillars—building trust and legitimacy, policy and oversight, technology and social media, community policing and crime reduction, training and education, and officer wellness and safety.
This project examines 21CPTFR’s reach and impact in the law enforcement field in the five years following the publication release. The overarching goals include:
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on law enforcement and other first responders, the National Police Foundation (NPF) identified the need to provide a range of resources, research, and awareness to the law enforcement community. As the COVID-19 pandemic progresses, NPF continues to identify opportunities to provide new resources and support—including grant funding—to first responders nationwide.
This report presents the results of the first truly representative national survey of how America’s rank-and-file police officers and their supervisors view critical issues of abuse of police authority. Officer responses are also analyzed according to rank, race, region of the U.S., and size of department. The survey instrument with responses is included. Presented are officers’ views on: Whether abuse of police authority is a necessary byproduct of efforts to reduce and control crime; What types of abuse and attitudes toward abuse are observed in their departments, including the code of silence, whistle blowing, and the extent to which a citizen’s race, demeanor, and class affect the way police officers treat them; What strategies or tactics-including first-line supervision, community policing, citizen review boards, and training-do police officers consider to be effective means of preventing police abuse of authority.
Since the events of September 11, 2001, security concerns have figured prominently in the national agenda. Government officials and the public now recognize a wider array of potential terrorist targets extending beyond military installations. These “soft targets”, or areas with public access, include transit hubs, schools, hospitals, and mass private spaces like amusement parks and sports arenas. One type of soft target that has received too little attention is the retail mall. With all the other soft targets that exist, why should citizens be concerned about attacks against shopping malls? One reason is that the nature of malls makes them very vulnerable: there are multiple entrances and exits, and they are open to the public. Large numbers of people come and go, making it easy for potential terrorists to blend in unnoticed. Many of the visitors carry large parcels that could hide a bomb or other weapon. There are multiple ways to attack a mall, ranging from automatic weapons to car bombs to bombs placed inside the mall, even to an attack using a biological or chemical agent.
Through funding from the City of College Park, Maryland, the National Police Foundation conducted an assessment of the City of College Park’s public safety and police services. Specifically, the study assessed the level of public safety and police services in College Park; assessed levels of coordination, effectiveness, and cost efficiency of public safety and police services; evaluated resource allocation; examined the utilization of technology and equipment such as security cameras, license plate readers, and other applicable public safety tools; and, reviewed communications about public safety.
The finding of the Police Foundation Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment (KCPPE) (Kelling, Pate, Dieckman, & Brown, 1974) that routine patrol did not affect crime has had ramifications on policing that continue today. Currently, police agencies have little ability to assess the effectiveness of their deployment strategies in relationship to their goals. Developments in technology, such as the Automated Vehicle Locator (AVL) – a global positioning device that can be placed in a vehicle for monitoring its location across real time/space – promise to provide an invaluable tool to inform Compstat and other directed patrol strategies (e.g., hot spots policing) in police agencies through measurement of police presence at all places and at all times.
The Police Executive Research Forum (PERF) conducted a project that examined the costs and benefits of body-worn cameras (BWC). This study ultimately aides in determining if the use of BWCs reduces the amount of money departments pay out to settle civil suits, and whether any such savings offset the cost of fielding and maintaining cameras. Police chiefs, city managers, and municipal councils, provided with information from the study, have the materials needed to conduct an intelligent assessment of the cost of implementing a wide-scale BWC program.
Community policing emphasizes the importance of partnerships and problem solving. However, typically partnerships and problem solving do not involve victims of crime. Recognizing the potential for crime victims to strengthen crime prevention and problem solving efforts in community policing, this project sought to develop models for integrating crime victims and victims’ organizations into community policing activities. Project activities included: (1) establishing a baseline of current practices regarding the involvement of victims and victims’ organizations in community policing; and (2) identifying promising policies and practices involving victims and victims’ organizations in crime prevention and problem-solving efforts in community policing.
The Central Falls, RI, Police Department partnered with the National Police Foundation to conduct an organizational analysis of the agency with the goal of improving its efficiency and furthering its commitment to community policing. Upon completion of Phase I of the project, the Central Falls Mayor’s Office awarded NPF additional funding to enter Phase II. This phase will assist with implementation of the recommendations and provide technical assistance to the City in designing and implementing a school-wide security and safety system.
In September 2015, the Office of Community Oriented Police Services (COPS) selected the Police Foundation as a provider for Collaborative Reform Initiative for Technical Assistance (CRI-TA). The purpose of the CRI-TA is to provide support to law enforcement agencies in building community relationships and organizational capacity through sustainable organizational transformation. According to the COPS Office, “Collaborative Reform is a long-term, holistic strategy that identifies issues within an agency that may affect public trust.
Marijuana legalization in Colorado has posed significant challenges for law enforcement resulting, stemming from the unanticipated consequences it has had on crime and public safety. Colorado law enforcement formed diverse partnerships to address the difficulties caused by conflicting state legislation and local ordinances, policies, and procedures. The situation was even more complex because marijuana remains a Schedule I controlled substance under federal law.
Acceptance of constructive change by police and the community is central to the purpose of the Police Foundation. From its inception, the foundation has understood that to flourish, police innovation requires an atmosphere of trust, a willingness to experiment and exchange ideas both within and outside the police structure, and, perhaps most importantly, a recognition of the common stake of the entire community in better police services. The Police Foundation has done much of the research that has led to a questioning of the traditional model of professional law enforcement and toward a new view of policing–one emphasizing a community orientation–that is widely embraced today.
The project goal is to work collaboratively with INL and INL- designated local organizations to develop a series of policy, practice, training and technical assistance resources to assist Mexican law enforcement agencies in reaching the full potential of community and problem-oriented policing. Community policing in Mexico is often referred to as “proximity policing” or “policia proximidad,” as community policing or “policia communitaria” has a different connotation involving civilian patrols.
The National Association for Civilian Oversight of Law Enforcement (NACOLE), a not-for-profit organization, in partnership with the Police Foundation, is conducting a two year project to develop comprehensive guidance on civilian oversight of law enforcement. The goal of effective oversight is to increase trust between the community and law enforcement, enhance police legitimacy, and advance the goals of community policing.
Police departments across the country have turned their attention to Compstat as an innovation in police management that combines state-of-the-art management principles with cutting edge crime analysis and geographic information systems technology. Compstat (computer comparison statistics), a management system initiated in the New York City Police Department, was implemented as a measure to control crime and improve the quality of life in that city. In the years since its appearance, its popularity among police and policy makers suggests that it is becoming the model of what it means to be a progressively managed department. Compstat programs have received national publicity and have been credited with impressive reductions in crime and improvements in neighborhood quality of life.
We identify a number of elements that full implementation of Compstat demands: mission clarification; geographic organization of operational command; data-driven analysis of problems and assessment of the department’s problem-solving efforts; effective problem-solving tactics; organizational flexibility; internal accountability; and external accountability. Little is known about whether and to what extent departments are implementing these elements of Compstat or whether new varieties of the program are evolving.
The project goal is to conduct a comprehensive review of C.O.P.S. hands-on programs and services and set benchmarks for ongoing evaluation. C.O.P.S. receives annual grants from the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Assistance to provide services to a growing number of survivors of those law enforcement personnel lost in the line of duty. The goal of this project was to document the historical growth of C.O.P.S. since its inception in 1984, survey eight of the nine survivor groups (Spouses, Parents, Adult Children, Fiancés/Significant Others, Siblings, Extended Family, Young Adults, and Co-Workers), observe and participate in various programs, training, and Police Week events, and provide a set of conclusions and recommendations.
CopBook is a secure data, knowledge, and information sharing platform currently being piloted by the Redlands Police Department (RPD). CopBook is based on the Jive Social Business Software platform. Through a grant award from the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the RPD has partnered with The Efiia Consulting Group to customize and deploy CopBook. Police Foundation Senior Research Associate, Travis Taniguchi, PhD, and Police Foundation President, Jim Bueermann, are the principal investigators for this project. The Police Foundation is responsible for managing the project and evaluating the impact of the platform on police operations.
The challenge facing law enforcement agencies everywhere is to be able to balance resources and service levels within budgetary constraints and community desires. Law enforcement agencies are experiencing increasing demands for more effective decision making, more efficient management of resources, and the achievement of government outcomes. This project consisted of a review, survey, and site visits to assess strategies for reducing agency costs while maintaining service delivery. We developed and distributed a comprehensive international survey of the police agencies of fifty-one United Kingdom police services, seven Australian police forces and services, and Canadian police agencies. This process is now complete and two documents are under publication with the COPS Office (one a guidebook on cost reduction strategies and the other a full technical report of the project).
The growing body of elder abuse research reflects the increasing attention paid to this serious problem and emphasizes the need for effective prevention and intervention strategies. While past research has examined risk factors and protective behaviors associated with abuse, studies have generally not examined either the course of abuse over time or the effectiveness of different intervention strategies. Despite the fact that the police have increasingly become involved in matters of domestic abuse against the elderly, the impact of their involvement has not been assessed. This study examines if and how risk factors and protective behaviors affect the course of abuse over time and the role of the police in intervening with elderly victims of domestic abuse and/or neglect. We also examine the prevalence rates for various types of abuse using a stratified sample of Chicago’s elderly population.
The goal of this project was to develop and test a model protocol to guide law enforcement responses to stalking based on community policing. The objectives were: (1) to promote a strategic approach that encourages early intervention; (2) to broadly define the roles of functional areas within police departments, including 911 operators, patrol, and investigative units; (3) to present guidelines for developing and participating in a coordinated community response; and (4) to encourage the use of collaborative problem-solving techniques.
Crime mapping has emerged as one of the most important and popular innovations in American policing. Advancements in computer technology and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have coincided with theoretical and practical innovations in crime analysis, investigation, and crime prevention. The innovations demanded by community- and problem-oriented policing require that departments incorporate a geographic, spatial, or local focus, and emphasize the importance of integrating crime mapping techniques into departmental management, analysis, and enforcement practices. Police agencies throughout the country are implementing and utilizing computerized crime mapping systems. Police officials and police scholars are working together to identify ways in which mapping can be used to advance community policing and problem-solving efforts. Recognizing the importance of mapping to policing, the Police Foundation in 1997 established a state-of-the-art Crime Mapping Laboratory with the goals of providing practical assistance and information to police departments, and to develop the physical and theoretical infrastructure necessary for further innovations in police and criminological theory.
The COMPASS model (Community Mapping, Planning, and Analysis for Safety Strategies), developed by the National Institute of Justice, offers a method for aiding police agencies in the development of more sophisticated and successful problem oriented policing models. COMPASS encourages the harnessing of data, knowledge, and skills in police agencies through the creation of partnerships with researchers and other relevant members of the COMPASS consortium. The Police Foundation served as the research partner for the COMPASS program in East Valley, California, from May 2002 through July 2004. The major focuses of the East Valley COMPASS initiative–regional data sharing and problem solving–were to be facilitated by a partnership of police and other agencies (e.g., probation and parole, United Way, school districts, hospitals, etc.) in seven jurisdictions in the East Valley–Redlands, Fontana, Colton, Rialto, City of San Bernardino, Highland, and Yucaipa. The main difference between East Valley COMPASS and other COMPASS projects was that seven jurisdictions, instead of just one, would contribute data and be part of the problem-solving partnership. This initiative called for the collaboration of not only police and sheriff departments, but also local governments, healthcare providers, institutions of higher learning, and the private sector.
At the request of the Prince William County (Virginia) Police Department (PWCPD), the National Police Foundation conducted an evaluation of the PWCPD crisis intervention team (CIT) program and the department’s response to emotionally-disturbed persons. The evaluation was conducted to assist PWCPD in enhancing its CIT program and operations to provide the most-effective, high-quality services to their community in a manner sustainable for the long term.
The project goal was to conduct two evaluations: an outcome evaluation of a community policing model in one module of the LA County Jails to assess its efficacy in improving community policing, procedural justice, and health, safety, and wellness outcomes, and the other to conduct a process evaluation of gender-responsive programming in the LA County Women’s Jail (Century Regional Detention Facility or CRDF).
The purpose of this project was to evaluate a mindfulness training program and its impact on a number of health, wellness, and practice outcomes. The program was developed and implemented specifically for 911 communications center personnel by Be Mindful, a Denver-based nonprofit whose programs have been implemented in schools, private industry, and public safety. The goal was to conduct an experimental evaluation of the training program, and subsequently the addition of organizational support and their efficacy. Our research partners from the Eastern Virginia Medical School consortium aided in statistical analysis and interpretation.
Through funding from Motorola Solutions and the City of Seattle, Washington, the National Police Foundation is developing and executing an Excellence in Policing for Law Enforcement Leaders Training for Seattle Police Department (SPD) sergeants and lieutenants.
Mistaken eyewitness identification is the leading cause of wrongful conviction of innocent people in the United States. The significant role that mistaken eyewitness identifications (EWID) have played in convictions of the innocent has led to a strong interest in finding ways to reduce eyewitness identification errors. In 2008, the American Judicature Society’s Center for Forensic Science and Public Policy, collaborated with the Innocence Project and the Police Foundation to examine eyewitness identification procedures in the field, namely the reliability of simultaneous versus sequential lineups administered under double-blind conditions using laptop computers. Sequential lineups are those in which photos are shown one at a time, whereas simultaneous lineups are shown as a set (sometimes referred to as an “array”).
The Police Foundation led the second phase, which had two purposes: (1) to validate the Phase I EWID study by assessing judicial outcomes and case strength ratings; and (2) to experimentally examine the extent to which knowledge of a positive identification, the identification of a “filler” in a lineup, or failure to identify a suspect in a lineup influences evaluation of other evidence in a case. The study was carried out in conjunction with the Austin Police Department and the Travis County District Attorney’s Office in Texas.
A law authored by former Texas State Senator Wendy Davis in 2011 required Texas law enforcement agencies to determine how many sexual assault kits had not been processed, and to submit any involved with “an active criminal case” for testing by April 1, 2012. Another recent Texas law requires all hospitals to have trained certified staff available to take sexual assault kit evidence.
Much has been written on community policing and on procedural justice; however, there is little available on the applications of these concepts in jails. Jails are definitely communities, and the growing emphasis on jail re-entry and transition to society could benefit from the application of a community oriented policing approach. The need for respect and legitimacy is paramount in jail settings, especially for the safety of officers and inmates. Some sheriffs’ departments have implemented similar philosophies, approaches, and components of community policing that have been successful in their communities within their jails, but there remains an absence of practice-based tools to aid others in replicating these efforts. As such, the goal of this effort is to identify existing community policing and/or procedural justice type approaches being successfully implemented in jails, and to provide a host of resources for jail leaders to adapt community policing philosophy and approaches to the successful management of jails.
Sound crime analysis processes are essential for police agencies to successfully integrate data-driven, evidence-based practices and management strategies. Although police leaders may recognize the importance of crime analysis, there are significant knowledge barriers to integrating effective crime analysis into daily operations. The Police Foundation, International Association of Directors of Law Enforcement Standards and Training (IADLEST) and International Association of Crime Analysts (IACA) are all committed to providing law enforcement executives the knowledge to effectively integrate crime analysis into their decision-making, and the operations of their agencies.
This landmark experiment found that traditional routine patrol in marked police cars does not appear to affect the level of crime. Nor does it affect the public’s feeling of security. The experiment demonstrated that urban police departments can successfully test patrol deployment strategies, and that they can manipulate patrol resources without jeopardizing public safety. Patrol is considered the backbone of police work. Billions of dollars are spent each year in the United States to maintain and operate uniformed and often superbly equipped patrol forces. The assumption underlying such deployment has been that the presence or potential presence of officers patrolling the streets in marked police cars deters people from committing crime. But the validity of this assumption had never been scientifically tested. And so, in 1972, with funding and technical assistance from the Police Foundation, the Kansas City Police launched a comprehensive, scientifically rigorous experiment to test the effects of police patrol on crime.
With fewer resources than larger agencies, large geographical areas of responsibility, and different types of crime and disorder challenges in less densely populated regions, smaller rural agencies can be left out of the conversation regarding contemporary policing needs and challenges, including the impact and availability of new technology, strategic approaches to policing, and law enforcement operational efficiencies.
This 256-page report presents findings and recommendations from the Police Foundation’s year-long national effort that examined the implications of immigration enforcement at the local level. The project brought together law enforcement executives, policy makers, elected officials, scholars, and community representatives in a series of focus groups across the country and at a national conference in Washington. The report includes research on the rights of undocumented immigrants and the legal framework for enforcement of immigration laws, demographics, immigration and criminality, evaluation of federal efforts to collaborate with local police on immigration enforcement (287(g) program), a national survey of law enforcement executives on immigration issues and local policing, the experience of undocumented youth, and a survey of law enforcement executives attending the foundation conference about their views on local immigration enforcement issues.
Do focused crime prevention efforts at places simply result in a movement of offenders to areas nearby targeted sites—do they simply move crime around the corner? Or, conversely, will a crime prevention effort focusing on specific places lead to improvement in areas nearby—what has come to be termed a diffusion of crime control benefits? Our data are drawn from a controlled study of displacement and diffusion in Jersey City, New Jersey. Our findings indicate that, at least for crime markets involving drugs and prostitution, crime does not simply move around the corner. Indeed, this study supports the position that the most likely outcome of such focused crime prevention efforts is a diffusion of crime control benefits to nearby areas.
Funded by the U.S. Department of State, Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, the target objectives of the Mobile Training Team (MTT) project are: (1) to increase the stability of the Government of Liberia in preparation for the United Nations peacekeeping forces withdrawal from Liberia; (2) to enhance the ability of the Liberia National Police (LNP) to field professional, well-trained police personnel who can manage crime and security threats across Liberia; and (3) to assist the LNP as it works to manage its own institutional development. The specific goals of the program are to increase training capacity, build knowledge, skills, and abilities of LNP trainers, and increase the capacity of the LNP to direct mobile training teams to remote areas or in areas where training needs arise.
In this project, we developed and implemented the Liberia MTTs project consisting of: (1) a one week on-site training needs and facilities assessment in Liberia’s capital of Monrovia as well as in remote areas of the country; (2) a 3-week study tour for 20 senior Liberia Police Academy instructors in the United States; and (3) assistance in the development of a strategic plan for implementing the MTT concept as well as its institutionalization. This includes providing LNP personnel with in-depth exposure to aspects of U.S. law enforcement training systems, models, modalities, methods, management, and strategies, as well as means for evaluating training effectiveness.
On October 25, 2010, at the 117th Annual International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) conference, a new law enforcement partnership was announced to address the problems of gun crimes and violence. The National Law Enforcement Partnership to Prevent Gun Violence was a collaboration among the national law enforcements groups committed to working together to address gun violence. The NLEPPGV believes that law enforcement can play a unique and essential role in educating policy makers and citizens on the realities of gun violence in the communities they serve, and in developing common-sense, data-driven solutions to reduce firearm-related injuries and deaths from homicides, suicides, and accidental shootings. This NLEPPGV is still ongoing but no longer managed from the National Police Foundation.
To view the NLEPPGV website, visit: www.lepartnership.org
The Police Foundation collaborated with six public safety agencies with established small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) programs to develop best practices, lessons learned, and a model data collection framework for the safe, effective, and lawful integration and management of sUAS technology in public safety operations. As part of this work, the Police Foundation developed a case study on each participating agency’s sUAS operations to provide other agencies with a practical roadmap on how to appropriately implement and operate sUAS technology.
The National Police Foundation, in partnership with the Major Cities Chiefs Association (MCCA) and law enforcement advisors, developed an online data collection tool where agencies entered information about all officer involved shooting (OIS) from 2015-2017, including detailed data on the officer(s) involved, the subject(s) who were present and fired upon, and the location(s) where the incident took place in near-real time.
In August 2017, the Illinois Attorney General filed a lawsuit against the City of Chicago, based on a year-long civil rights investigation conducted by the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ), into the practices of the Chicago Police Department (CPD). The Mayor of Chicago and the Superintendent of CPD committed to working with the Attorney General to negotiate a consent decree. As part of the development of the consent decree, the Illinois Attorney General’s Office solicited the National Police Foundation to facilitate a series of focus groups of sworn CPD officers to gather their opinions of the upcoming consent decree.
The National Police Foundation proposes to conduct an in-depth analysis of deadly force incidents in Phoenix over the last 3-5 years to provide the Phoenix Police Department (PPD) a deeper understanding of these events. The analysis will focus on factors contributing to the occurrence of deadly force incidents, the nature of the encounter (including whether or not subject(s) are armed and/or resist).
The Police Data Initiative (PDI) is a community of practice designed to support law enforcement agencies that are seeking to better inform and engage the public through the release and use of open data. By joining the Police Data Initiative, law enforcement executives can connect with over 140 agencies of all sizes across the United States that are currently maintaining or working to release open datasets online.
Perhaps the oldest tradition in policing, foot patrol is widely used by many agencies and has become a topic of renewed discussion as law enforcement leaders contemplate how to improve community engagement, partnership, and trust. With this renewed focus comes the need for practical guidance on how agencies can and should implement a foot patrol strategy that is both effective in reducing crime and disorder and beneficial to agency relationships with the community. To address this need, the Police Foundation, with the support of the Charles Koch Foundation, conducted a series of case studies on police use of foot patrol to develop practical guidance for police agencies, officers, and executives on how to effectively implement an evidence-based foot patrol strategy. With its early involvement in foot patrol research and its mission of improving policing through science and innovation, the Police Foundation was uniquely suited for this task.
Recent evaluations of “second response” programs for domestic violence victims have cast doubt on their effectiveness. These programs are designed to educate and empower victims who have reported incidents of domestic abuse to the police. The program model involves a social worker or specially trained domestic violence police officer going to the homes of victims who have reported domestic abuse some time after the initial patrol response to the call for service. The second responder talks with victims about the nature of domestic violence, helps them develop a safety plan, and informs them about help available for counseling needs, relocation, civil legal assistance, restraining orders, and other social services.
This experimental evaluation of a training program was aimed at promoting the use of procedural justice by officers in the Seattle Police Department. The innovation of the proposed training program was twofold. First, we applied insights from criminology and statistics to develop a new kind of early intervention system, which we referred to as a High-Risk Circumstance (HRC) model. This model identified officers working in behavioral hot spots, small geographic areas where police officers are more likely to be involved in problematic citizen encounters. Our HRC model geographically calibrated by identifying incident level data from 2009 collected by the Seattle Police Department.
That research approach allowed us to: (1) develop an EIS system that drew from recent criminological insights about behavioral hot spots, and was likely to identify officers before problematic behaviors emerged; (2) test the effectiveness of a practical strategy that departments could use to promote the use of procedural justice; (3) measure the effect of procedural justice on policing using quantifiable field outcomes, rather than inherently subjective self reports by the officer; and (4) foster further partnerships between researchers and police professionals.
The purpose of this project is to support the efforts of the National Canine Research Council (NCRC) in developing relevant and evidence-based training scenarios for law enforcement officers. The five primary objectives of the research were to: 1) review existing scientific literature on dog shootings by law enforcement personnel; 2) establish a broad understanding of existing dog behavior training programs for law enforcement officers; 3) identify officers’ common misperceptions about dog behavior and their perceptions about the causes and contributors to dog shootings and their justification; 4) identify common misinformation in existing dog behavior training programs for law enforcement officers; and 5) enhance the development of evidence-based interactive training for law enforcement officer and agencies developed by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Los Angeles (spcaLA).
This study’s primary purpose was an evaluation of the Richmond, Virginia, Second Responders Program, a collaborative effort of the Richmond Department of Social Services and the Richmond Police Department. The program involved the introduction of social workers, based in the police precincts, to scenes of domestic violence to which police had responded, while the police were still on site. We also examined the researcher/practitioner partnership whose primary members were the Police Foundation, the Richmond Department of Social Services and the Richmond Police Department, with a view to contributing to our knowledge of this model.
Drawing upon the risk and protective factors model and suggestions regarding the importance of places for understanding and targeting juvenile delinquency, the Redlands Police Department has developed a risk-focused policing approach to places (RFPP). Specifically, the Communities that Care Program (CTC) in Redlands used the risk and protective model developed by Hawkins and Catalano to identify census block groups where the risk of juvenile delinquency was high. The Redlands Police Department employed a problem-oriented policing approach to develop and implement strategies to reduce risk factors in these areas and reinforce protective factors. The program was aided by sophisticated crime mapping tools, which allowed the police department to draw from multiple data sources in defining the places for intervention, in analyzing problems, and in developing innovative solutions.
Civilian Police were first deployed by the United Nations more than 50 years ago. After a lull of approximately two decades, the number of police on peacekeeping operations has increased 10, 000 officers in 2009. The role of police has continued to broaden from one of monitoring general elections, providing training and basic security to one of patrolling and the development of local police. The inclusion of police in peacekeeping missions is an accepted mantra by both academia and practitioners. However, the role of police in peacekeeping missions is not well understood by policy and decision-makers. The purpose of this book is to understand the role that police play in the post-conflict context, especially in regard to reforming local police.
The National Police Foundation (NPF) is conducting an organizational analysis of the Santa Fe Police Department at the request of the department. The project will evaluate organization efficiency, help plan future growth, and address officer hiring and retention.
The rapid growth in applications and usage of crime mapping and analysis in law enforcement agencies in recent years has increased job opportunities for new analysts. As crime analysis has become an established profession, there is a need for consensus about the specific knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics and the extent of formalized training necessary for new analysts. Through various discussion channels, including in-house forums, focus groups, visits with crime analysis units, and participation at annual crime mapping conferences, the Police Foundation’s Crime Mapping and Problem Analysis Laboratory recognized the importance of creating hiring standards and a systematic and comprehensive hiring process for selecting highly capable crime analysts. This publication and accompanying appendices on CD-ROM focus on defining the job of a crime analyst and on a model procedure for selecting the best possible crime analyst for a law enforcement agency.
Most law enforcement agencies have traditionally deployed their patrol officers based on a 40-hour workweek in which personnel work five consecutive, 8-hour shifts, followed by two days off. In recent years, however, an increasing number of agencies have moved to some variant of a compressed work week (CWW) schedule in which officers work four 10-hour shifts per week or three 12-hour shifts (plus a time adjustment to make up the remaining four hours of the standard 40-hour work week). While this trend towards CWWs has been moving apace, there have been few, if any, rigorous scientific studies examining the advantages and disadvantages associated with these work schedules for officers and their agencies. The study found some distinct advantages of 10-hour shifts and identified some disadvantages associated with 12-hour shifts that are concerning. It is important that agencies implement strategies and policies that are evidence based, and the findings of this study provide important information for law enforcement leaders and other policy makers to consider when examining both the most efficient and effective practices for their agency, as well as the safety and quality of life of their personnel and the public they serve.
The Police Foundation and the Redlands Police Department have partnered to develop, implement, and evaluate the deployment of iPhones and custom apps. The Redlands Police Department deploys over 100 iPhones and 75 iPads to its sworn, civilian, and volunteer staff. The department has been featured by Apple as an example of innovative use of the technology in an enterprise environment.
The FI app allows users to conduct field interviews (FI) directly on their iPhone. These FIs are then directly uploaded to the agency’s records management system. The NearMe app allows personnel to conducted sophisticated crime mapping on their mobile device. Users have the ability to look at crime and officer activity in both a spatial and temporal context. The Police Flyers app allows field personnel to create and distribute informational flyers (e.g. BOLO, wanted person, missing at risk) directly from their iOS device.
In 2017, the Stockton Police Department (SPD) developed the Safety, Health, Resilience, Endurance, and Development (SHRED) program SPD with the desired goal to reduce the number of work-related injuries and industrial disability retirements, reduce the medical and overtime costs related to these injuries, and reduce the number of work hours lost to work-related injuries. This was to be achieved by providing cutting-edge physical fitness and injury prevention evaluations through Sparta Science’s state-of-the-art physical conditioning evaluation equipment and software. The National Police Foundation provided research support and evaluation expertise.
The Texas Health Resources (THR) Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Program is a system-wide expansion and enhancement of THR’s current SANE program. The overarching goal is to implement a system-wide SANE program across THR’s 16-county service area in an effort to increase public safety against sexual violence in the communities of North Texas. The development of a system-wide SANE program aligns the existing THR-operated SANE programming under the umbrella of Texas Health Resources System Services, the administrative organization for THR-operated hospitals and medical facilities, allowing the existing and developing SANE program and service sites to share administrative resources, which in turn provides for streamlined and responsive services to patients—in this case, victims of sexual assault and/or abuse.
For over a decade, research has shown that once a burglary occurs on a street, the homes on that street and on nearby streets are at a much higher risk of burglary over the next one to two weeks. But this research finding has not yet been translated into actionable crime prevention strategies for police agencies and tested in the United States using a randomized controlled experiment. This project aims to correct this deficiency by using the knowledge surrounding near repeat burglary to develop a crime prevention strategy.
The study identified the near repeat patterns in two police departments (Redlands, CA, and Baltimore County, MD). An automated system was developed to identify originator events, generate the near repeat high risk area (as a polygon), randomly allocate the event to treatment or control, and notify the project coordinator of the homes to be visited with crime prevention information. The project was designed to test whether notification of increased risk could interrupt the phenomena of near repeat burglaries. The study has been completed and results will be forthcoming. Additional work on further advancing the automated processing tool is underway.
Many law enforcement agencies are considering the use of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) as a tool for lost person searches, officer safety enhancement, accident scene reconstruction, and other uses. These small systems can provide an aerial viewpoint at a fraction of the cost of manned aviation systems, but it is important for law enforcement agencies to recognize that the public is wary of invasion of privacy and other legal and practical issues associated with the use of “drones.” This project aims to provide comprehensive guidance for law enforcement on how to work with their communities to obtain support and enhance trust by applying the principles and practices of community policing to the acquisition and use of small unmanned aircraft systems.
The New York University (NYU) Policing Project, working in partnership with the National Urban League and the National Police Foundation, is conducting a two-year study of existing police-community engagement efforts to develop a set of models and best practices for jurisdictions of various sizes. National Police Foundation staff have worked with the Policing Project staff to conduct site visits to examine promising law enforcement strategies to engage the community in policy development in five cities: Grand Rapids, Michigan; Austin, Texas; Stockton, California; Salt Lake City, Utah; and, Washtenaw County, Michigan.
The Police Foundation was engaged by the State of Delaware to support the Wilmington Public Safety Strategies Commission, a newly formed commission tasked with examining crime in Wilmington, Delaware, and developing recommendations on what strategies could be used to reduce crime in Wilmington, the state’s largest city. The commission was created by the state Legislature at the urging of Gov. Jack Markell after national news reports identified Wilmington as having one of the highest rates of violent crime for a city its size.
The project goal is to serve as research partner to the Ashland, Oregon Police Department and Jackson County Sexual Assault Response Team (SART) to evaluate the development and implementation of the You Have Options Program (YHOP) on sexual assault and Guidebook for program participants that puts control in the hands of the survivors of sex assault in terms of reporting on the crime and determining when or if a police investigation should commence.
The National Police Foundation has partnered with the North American Family Institute (NAFI), the Somali Community and Cultural Association (SCCA), and the Boston Police Department (BPD) to implement the Youth and Police Initiative Plus (YPIP) program, with a goal to build and foster community resilience among Somali immigrant families in the Boston metropolitan area.
The National Police Foundation, in collaboration with the California Police Chiefs Association and the California State Sheriffs’ Association and with funding from the California Endowment, will be providing California law enforcement executives with four policy briefs designed to inform youth policing strategy and to best define the role of their officers in schools and communities.