On Policing

Welcome to the On Policing series.

PF On Policing logo final versionOn Policing captures the thoughts of some of the country’s most important voices on contemporary policing. It is intended to stimulate debate about the state of policing and the myriad of challenges involved in controlling crime, disorder, and terrorism in a democracy like ours. The opinions are the authors’ own and may not represent the official position of the Police Foundation. All comments are welcome – especially contrarian ones. We reserve the right to remove hateful or profane posts.

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Please refer to the essay entitled “An Introduction to On Policing” for an in-depth introduction to the series by the Police Foundation’s president, Jim Bueermann. If you would like to contribute to the On Policing series, please send your 500-1000 word essay to onpolicing@policefoundation.org.

 
 
 

Pre-Arrest Diversion Programs: The Future of Policing

bob-gualtieri-02By Sheriff Bob Gualtieri
Pinellas County Sheriff’s Office, Florida

People make mistakes. They do stupid things. Sometimes they make bad choices because they are down on their luck and don’t feel they have another option.

But it is important to realize there is a big difference between bad people who do bad things that hurt people and good people who make an error in judgment because they are young and immature or just find themselves in a bad spot.

Here in Pinellas County, Florida, time and again we see people making these mistakes, getting convicted, serving time or paying large fines and ultimately, leaving themselves with criminal records that will often haunt them for much or all of their lives. Given how information today is so readily available, that statement really is true. There are even websites now where anyone can locate a person’s mugshot for what in some cases is really just a petty offense.

After a lot of talking and planning, we have decided that in our county, just because people do something wrong doesn’t mean they all should be saddled with an undue weight for the remainder of their days. In October, we started an Adult Pre-Arrest Diversion program aimed at preventing these sorts of errors from keeping people from getting a job or stable housing. Read more

It’s Not Weak to Feel Psychological Trauma – It’s Human

tammy-mccoy-picBy Tammy McCoy-Arballo
Counseling Team International Clinical Psychologist

Being courageous does not mean you are not afraid. Courageous people are afraid, but fear does not stop them from confronting danger. I have been thinking about courage and danger a great deal as the first anniversary of the San Bernardino terrorist attack neared. We saw a tremendous amount of courage from the men and women in law enforcement who responded to the Inland Regional Center a year ago today.

As the anniversary of the San Bernardino terrorist attack dawns, it seems only natural to ask: “What would I do in that situation?” and “How would I react to the emotional strain caused by an event like that?”

A husband and wife tandem fired off hundreds of rounds during the Dec. 2, 2015 attack, killing 14 people and seriously injuring 22 others – all civilians. The pair was killed hours later during a firefight with officers, some who were injured during the exchange of gunfire.

Of course all law enforcement officials hope such circumstances never repeat themselves, but it would be normal for all who carry a badge and gun to look inward and ponder how they would respond if they faced the same situation or some sort of active-shooter event. Media reports describe a broad range of emotions from responding officers, from anxiety to excitement. Read more

Raising Our Standards Above Criminal Culpability

FLYNNEdwardABy Chief Edward A. Flynn
Milwaukee Chief of Police

These days, there cannot be many more difficult jobs than being a cop in the United States. It’s reached such a point that in many ways, I can liken it to being a member of the military, serving overseas in a hot zone.

I say that because much like in the military, we in the law enforcement community are in the business of making critical decisions that impact people’s lives, and yet have to make those tough decisions with insufficient information. We are going to make mistakes. We can’t not make them.

We are encountering criminals with high-capacity firearms who are becoming more sophisticated at being criminals every day. They are cold, calculating and clearly have no problem killing people, particularly people in our inner cities. We also deal on a daily basis with more mental health issues than mental health professionals. Read more

Lessons from the Battlefield: A Case for Evidence-Based Policing

greer-photo-8x10By Lieutenant Stuart Greer
Morristown (NJ) Police Department

As twin bombs detonated near the finish line of the Boston Marathon, police officers, firefighters and emergency medical technicians heroically rushed into danger to save lives.  The first responders found that they were dealing with devastation on a massive scale but utilized everything available to help those that had been critically injured.  One of the actions taken by a number of first responders was the application of makeshift tourniquets to victims who were in danger of bleeding to death from their injuries.  Those actions were reportedly responsible for numerous victims surviving long enough to reach a Trauma Center where surgical interventions were able to save their lives.

The decision to apply those tourniquets was not widely reported, but as we look back now, it is a perfect example of the evolution of an evidence-based practice that can have impact on the lives of police officers and those we have sworn to protect. Read more

Leading Culture Change

debora_blackBy Chief Debora Black
Prescott Police Department

“The only thing of real importance that leaders do is to create and manage culture.” -Edgar Schein

As leaders of law enforcement agencies, we might well debate the accuracy of Mr. Schein’s statement as we daily face threats to the safety of people in our communities, challenges which threaten the credibility of our organization, and real dangers that risk the very lives of our officers. There is no debate, however, about the importance culture plays in creating effective police departments with strong connections with their community.

Given the events of the past 18 months and the widespread criticism of our profession, officers could easily choose to isolate themselves from the very people they are sworn to protect. If that happens in a department, the principles of community policing are weakened, ultimately leading to even greater distrust of officers, which undermines the overall effectiveness of the department’s ability to protect the community from harm. Read more

Law Enforcement Must Regain the Public’s Trust

davethomas2By Dr. David J. Thomas
Police Foundation Senior Research Fellow

I write this as an African American male and as a retired police officer.

There is so much American history that some of America wants to forget. Quite honestly, we Americans have short memories when it comes to uncomfortable reality or truth that interferes with our way of life. For instance, if I bring up slavery, police would argue: “Slavery has nothing to do with where we are today. I am not responsible for something that happened 300 years ago.”

What is lost in this argument and what the law enforcement community fails to recognize is that our past is the root of problems today. Read more

Solving Crime and Enhancing Community-Policing Using Advanced GPS Tracking Technology

lt-martinez-hi-res-picBy Travis Martinez
Special Operations Bureau Lieutenant with the Redlands Police Department

As the crime rate continues to increase throughout California with communities feeling the effects of prison realignment and Prop. 47, law enforcement agencies across the state are challenged with finding new strategies to address community concerns.

Several police agencies – including the Redlands Police Department (RPD) – appear to have found an effective strategy to leverage GPS technology to address crime trends that are popping up in the community. Since 2011, RPD has made 220 arrests for all sorts of robberies and thefts using motion-activated GPS devices that have the capability of being deployed in the field for up to 21 months.

It may seem as if success is measured by the number of arrests, but the reality is most deployments do not result in apprehensions. When it comes to enhancing community policing and promoting police legitimacy, all deployments are critical, even those that ultimately do not result in an arrest.  Read more

Learning Critical Lessons from 9/11, Then and Today

Frank Straub, Director of Public Safety, waits for his segment of a hearing with members of the Public Safety and Criminal Justice Committee, Indianapolis, Wednesday, April 18, 2012. Robert Scheer/The StarBy Frank Straub
Director of Strategic Studies
Police Foundation

On Saturday (September 10th), I received an email from Jim Bueermann, my boss at the Police Foundation. The email’s subject line was succinct:

“Is that you in this photo from 9/11?”

I opened the email and clicked on the link Jim had provided; I watched the video, and there I was, kneeling next to a NYC fire fighter whom my partner and I had pulled out of the first tower of the World Trade Center after it collapsed. Amazingly, he had survived even though he had been in the lobby.

I had never seen the photo, and it brought back memories of 9/11, which Jim asked me to share. Read more

Big Time Trouble Won’t Only Happen in Big Cities

jhadley picBy Jeff Hadley
Chief of the Kalamazoo Department of Public Safety

If the past year has shown us anything, it’s that crime and terror on a major scale can happen anywhere, not just in big cities like New York or Washington D.C.

There were probably a lot of Americans who had never heard of Kalamazoo, Michigan, before an Uber driver went on a killing spree in my community on Feb. 20, 2016, but I am guessing a lot of Americans also had never heard of San Bernardino, Calif., before terrorists attacked it last December.

Just two weeks before the Uber driver killed six people, I was talking to a reporter and discussing the notion that an active shooter event could easily happen here. As police chiefs, we have to be ready for major incidents, no matter the size of the community that we are responsible for protecting. With major incidents comes major attention from the national media, and these days, sometimes even the international media. Read more

Community-Led Policing

Tim Hegarty photo 2By Tim Hegarty
Captain of the Support Services Division
Riley County Police Department

Current models of civilian oversight explicitly separate the roles of the community and the police in the decision-making process. In fact, most civilian oversight exists to address the consequences of decisions already made by the police. The Final Report of the President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing reinforces this separation by recommending “some form of civilian oversight in order to strengthen trust with the community,” and yet it acknowledges there is no evidence to support this recommendation. The President’s Task Force rightly calls for more research into the efficacy of civilian oversight, but there is another model that may be better suited to address the police legitimacy concerns fueling the demand for civilian oversight. Read more

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