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Below is a complete list of available Police Foundation titles-in-print. Although many of these documents are available electronically, some are, at this time, available only as hard copies. As part of our efforts to preserve the history of the Foundation, we are constantly working to digitize documents to make them accesible online. To view a list of documents that have recently been made accessible online, visit our From the Archive series. To order a publication on this list, send us a message using the contact form.

Civil Disorder

THE CITY IN CRISIS:  A REPORT BY THE SPECIAL ADVISOR TO THE BOARD OF POLICE COMMISSIONERS ON THE CIVIL DISORDER IN LOS ANGELES (1992)

$30.00, 2-volumes (450 pages) ISBN 1-884614-05-1
Available Online
 
This 450-page work reports the results of a study, headed by former Police Foundation chairman,  William Webster, and foundation president Hubert Williams, of the police preparedness for and response to the 1992 civil disorder in Los Angeles.

CIVIL DISORDER: WHAT DO WE KNOW?  HOW SHOULD WE PREPARE? (1994)

$15.00 (166 pages) ISBN 1-884614-03-5
 
An April 1993 Police Foundation conference brought together national experts to consider the causes of civil disorder and the means by which it could be prevented or controlled.  This book carries the edited proceedings of that conference.  It offers practical approaches to controlling and preventing mass violence in our cities as well as insights into prevailing social conditions thought to lay the groundwork for such violence.

THE YEARS OF CONTROVERSY: THE LOS ANGELES POLICE COMMISSION 1991-1993 (1995)

C.A. Novak. $5.00 (45 pages) ISBN 1-884614-09-04
 
The story of the struggle to institute necessary changes in the LAPD in the period following the Rodney King incident, the trial of the police officers involved, and the civil disorder sparked by that trial. In this monograph, the members of the 1991-1993 LA Police Commission provide a unique viewpoint of a difficult period in LA history. This is the first full account of how the commission fit into the puzzle of politics, media attention, public concern, and police policy that defined the city in the months and years following the beating of Rodney King.

Community Policing

THE ABUSE OF POLICE AUTHORITY: A NATIONAL STUDY OF POLICE OFFICERS’ ATTITUDES  (2001) 

David Weisburd, Rosann Greenspan, Edwin E. Hamilton, Kellie A. Bryant, Hubert Williams. $24.95 (197 pages, 41 tables/figures)  ISBN 1-884614-17-5.
 
The results of the first truly representative national survey of how America’s rank and file police officers and their supervisors view critical issues of abuse of police authority.  Officer responses are also analyzed according to rank, race, region of the U.S., and size of department. The survey instrument with responses is included.  Presented are officers’ views on:
• Whether abuse of police authority is a necessary byproduct of efforts to reduce and control crime;
• What types of abuse and attitudes toward abuse are observed in their departments, including the code of silence, whistle blowing, and the extent to which a citizen’s race, demeanor, and class affect the way they are treated by police; and
• What strategies or tactics including first-line supervision, community policing, citizen review boards, and training do police officers consider to be effective means of preventing police abuse of authority.

THE CINCINNATI TEAM POLICING EXPERIMENT: A SUMMARY REPORT (1977)

Alfred I. Schwartz and Sumner N. Clarren. $10.00 (63 pages)
 
Concludes that neighborhood team policing is hard to maintain but is a potentially useful alternative to traditional police patrol methods.

COMMUNITY POLICING IN MADISON: QUALITY FROM THE INSIDE, OUT. TECHNICAL REPORT (1993) 

Mary Ann Wycoff and Wesley G. Skogan. $15.00 (139 pages)

This report is the evaluation of the effort by the Madison, WI, Police Department to create a new organizational design-structural and managerial-to support community-oriented and problem-oriented policing. The report describes the effort to bring about change in policing from “the inside, out.” Internal changes would be followed by external changes.

EVALUATING PATROL OFFICER PERFORMANCE UNDER COMMUNITY POLICING: THE HOUSTON EXPERIENCE.  TECHNICAL REPORT (1993)

Mary Ann Wycoff and Timothy N.Oettmeier. $15.00 (147 pages)

The Police Foundation and the Houston Police Department worked to develop and test a new personnel evaluation process in support of neighborhood-oriented policing in Houston. The study concluded that a performance measurement process designed to reinforce officer functions can provide structural support for a philosophy of policing and for structural change.

NEWARK FOOT PATROL EXPERIMENT (1981)

George L. Kelling, Antony Pate, Amy Ferrara, Mary Utne, and Charles E. Brown.  $15.00 (137 pages)

The results of this experiment suggest that while foot patrol may not reduce crime, it reduces citizen fear of crime.  Residents see their communities as safer and better places to live, and are more satisfied with police services.

REDUCING FEAR OF CRIME IN HOUSTON AND NEWARK: A SUMMARY REPORT (1986) 

Antony M. Pate, Mary Ann Wycoff, Wesley G. Skogan, and Lawrence W. Sherman.$15.00 (47 pages)
 
The research summarized here demonstrates that there are strategies police can use to reduce levels of perceived crime and disorder, reduce attendant fear, heighten satisfaction with police services and
neighborhoods, and, in some cases, reduce crime itself.

FEAR REDUCTION REPORTS (1985)

Executive Summary - $10.00 each; Technical Reports - $25.00 each
 
Reports of various aspects of community policing in Houston and Newark.  An executive summary and technical report were produced for each study.
Citizen Contact Patrol: The Houston Field Test
• The Houston Victim Recontact Experiment
• Police Community Stations: The Houston Field Test
• Police as Community Organizers: The Houston Field Test
• Neighborhood Police Newsletters: Experiments in Newark and Houston
• Coordinated Community Policing: The NewarkExperience
• Reducing the "Signs of Crime": The Newark Experience

INNER-CITY CRIME CONTROL: CAN COMMUNITY INSTITUTIONS CONTRIBUTE? (1990)

Anne Thomas Sulton. $10.00 (123 pages)
 
Chronicles community crime reduction programs across the country, discussing strategies and techniques that should be considered in shaping urban crime control policy and research. The 18 model programs discussed are sponsored by an array of community institutions, including schools, churches, businesses, civic groups, and juvenile and criminal justice agencies.

SAN DIEGO COMMUNITY PROFILE: FINAL REPORT (1975) 

John E. Boydstun and Michael E. Sherry. $10.50 (136 pages)
 
An evaluation by System Development Corporation of the San Diego Community Profile Development Project, designed to increaseCthrough greater community involvementCpatrol officers' ability to deal with the problems for the citizens on their beats.

TEAM POLICING: SEVEN CASE STUDIES (1973)

Lawrence W. Sherman, Catherine H. Milton, and Thomas V. Kelly.  $10.00 (108 pages)
 
Examines, on a case-by-case basis, team policing as it existed in several cities in the early 1970s.

Compstat

COMPSTAT AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE IN THE LOWELL POLICE DEPARTMENT: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES (2004)

James J. Willis, Stephen D. Mastrofski, David Weisburd, and Rosann Greenspan. (96 pages) (available online only) ISBN 1-884614-19-1

This report examines the special challenges and opportunities that arise when small departments try to institute a program of organizational change that originated in much larger agencies. The report serves three purposes: (1) to provide a detailed description of Lowell’s Compstat program that should interest police chiefs and other police personnel who are curious about Compstat; (2) to explain the benefits and challenges of implementing the various key elements of Compstat; and (3) to use our knowledge of Lowell to provide some insights into Compstat’s future in law enforcement. This is the first report in a series of three from the larger, NIJ-funded project, Compstat and Organizational Change: Findings from a National Survey.

COMPSTAT IN PRACTICE: AN-DEPTH ANALYSIS OF THREE CITIES (2004)

James J. Willis, Stephen D. Mastrofski, David Weisburd. (99 pages) (available online only)   ISBN 1-884614-20-5
 
This report explores the relationship between the theory and practice of Compstat in three police departments of different size, organizational structure, and crime environment. It shows how police managers and officers adapted their routine tasks and activities to Compstat’s focus on accountability, innovative problem solving, and crime fighting. The challenges they faced in doing so reflected the culture of the individual department, the availability of resources for personnel, the sophistication of technology, and management’s commitment to the program. The distinct experiences of the three departments-Lowell, MA; Minneapolis, MN; and Newark, NJ-reveal Compstat’s complexities, highlight its contributions, and provide some insights into the direction it is leading U.S. policing.

THE GROWTH OF COMPSTAT IN AMERICAN POLICING. Police Foundation Report. (April 2004)

David Weisburd, Stephen D. Mastrofski, Rosann Greenspan, James J. Willis. (18 pages) (available online only)

This research-in-brief describes the national survey that assessed the number of U.S. police agencies using Compstat and measured the degree to which the elements of Compstat were part of their routine and structure. This is the second report in a series of three from the larger, NIJ-funded project, Compstat and Organizational Change: Findings from a National Survey.


Crime Mapping/Crime Analysis/Problem Analysis

CRIME MAPPING NEWS

Newsletter for GIS, crime mapping, and policing.

CRIME ANALYSIS CASE STUDIES (2011)

Greg Jones and Mary Malina, Editors (68 pages) (available online only)

With support from the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, the Police Foundation developed this collection of case studies that examine practical yet unique crime and disorder problems. These case studies are written by crime analysts and practitioners to demonstrate the processes, tools, and research crime analysts use to understand as well as to find viable, comprehensive solutions to crime and disorder problems. Each case study draws upon an analyst’s experience, training, and basic problem-solving skills; however, several draw upon the problem-analysis process as well.  Each case study follows a uniform format using SARA, which enables a systematic review of a problem to facilitate well-developed, targeted response(s).  

INTEGRATED INTELLIGENCE AND CRIME ANALYSIS: ENHANCED INFORMATION MANAGEMENT FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT LEADERS  (2007)

Jerry H. Ratcliffe (48 pages) ISBN 978-1-884614-21
 
To order a printed copy, contact the COPS Response Center at 1-800-421-6770 or use the COPS Publications Request Form.

Data and information about the criminal environment and criminal activity abound: the challenge is to corral this wealth of data into knowledge that can enhance decision making, improve strategies to combat crime, and increase crime prevention benefits. In other words, the aim is to convert data and information into actionable intelligence. This report is designed to identify the key challenges limiting criminal intelligence sharing, the aims of the integrated analysis model, and the way that all police depart-ments, big or small, can work individually and collectively towards the new intelligence-led policing paradigm of modern policing.

MAPPING FOR COMMUNITY-BASED PRISONER REENTRY EFFORTS: A GUIDEBOOK FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES AND THEIR PARTNERS (2007)

Nancy G. La Vigne (44 pages)  ISBN 978-188461422-4
 
To order a printed copy, contact the COPS Response Center at 1-800-421-6770 or use the COPS Publications Request Form.

This guidebook explores ways in which mapping can aid police responses to prisoner reentry. It raises and answers a series of questions designed to walk the reader through the logic of why and how police can take an active role in prisoner reentry efforts and how mapping can aid in those efforts. It describes the reasons behind, and strategies for, engaging in data-sharing partnerships with corrections agencies, followed by a description of useful maps that can be produced. Special attention is paid to describing the various obstacles both to forging reentry partnerships and to mapping reentry data and how those obstacles can be surmounted. The guidebook closes with a discussion of how police agencies, in partnership with corrections, service providers, and community representatives, can use maps to influence changes in policies, practices, and procedures to better enhance public safety by reducing recidivism among released prisoners and apprehending those who do recidivate swiftly and efficiently.

PROBLEM ANALYSIS IN POLICING (2003) 

Rachel Boba. (64 pages) ($5 shipping and handling) ISBN 1-884614-18-3

This report introduces and defines problem analysis and provides guidance on how it can be integrated and institutionalized into modern policing practice. Not a “how to” guide, this report is a summary of ideas and recommendations about what problem analysis is, what skills and knowledge are necessary to conduct it, and how it can be advanced by the police community, academia, the federal government, and other institutions. The ideas and recommendations in this report come primarily from a two-day forum conducted by the Police Foundation and the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, at which academics, practitioners, and policy makers came together to discuss problem analysis and make recommendations for its progress.

SELECTING THE BEST ANALYST FOR THE JOB: A MODEL CRIME ANALYST ASSESSMENT PROCESS FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES (2010) 

Karen L. Amendola and Greg Jones (72 pages + appendices on CD) ISBN 978-1-884614-24-8
 
To order a printed copy, contact the COPS Response Center at 1-800-421-6770 or use the COPS Publications Request Form.   Please note the book was updated in December 2010 and that version is currently available online only.

The rapid growth in applications and usage of crime mapping and analysis in law enforcement agencies in recent years has increased job opportunities for new analysts. Recognizing the importance of creating hiring standards and a systematic and comprehensive hiring process for selecting highly capable crime analysts, and with the support of the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, the Police Foundation developed Selecting the Best Analyst for the Job: A Model Crime Analyst Assessment Process for Law Enforcement Agencies (CAAP). The enclosed publication and accompanying CD-ROM focus on defining the job of a crime analyst and on a model procedure for selecting the best possible crime analyst for an agency.

OVERCOMING THE BARRIERS: CRIME MAPPING IN THE 21ST CENTURY

Focuses on the human and technological barriers that police agencies face in the implementation and integration of crime mapping.  Available online only.

Number 1, January 2002: Crossing the Borders of Crime: Factors Influencing the Utility and Practicality of Inter-jurisdictional Crime Mapping  

John E. Eck (16 pages)

Mapping across jurisdictions has emerged as a major problem in the integration of crime mapping into police problem solving. Crime problems often cross jurisdictional boundaries, while crime analysis is often based within specific jurisdictions. John Eck argues the main impediments to the development of effective cross jurisdictional crime mapping systems lie not in the technologies but in the organizational structures and patterns of police agencies.

Number 2, August 2002: Mapping in Police Agencies: Beyond This Point There Be Monsters

Lawrence Travis III and Kenneth D. Hughes (16 pages)

This monograph explores why more American law enforcement agencies haven’t adopted and fully utilized computerized crime mapping. Travis and Hughes propose that mapping is in an early stage of the innovation cycle and its acceptance and use will accelerate in time. The authors also suggest that computerized crime mapping, despite its potential, remains largely unexplored because it may present unforeseen perils for agencies and executives.

Crime Analysis and Crime Mapping Information Clearinghouse (8th Ed.)

Available Online

Provides a comprehensive list of valuable crime analysis and crime mapping resource, and includes bibliographic and Internet resources that may be useful to practitioners and researchers interested in the disciplines of crime analysis and crime mapping. The bibliographic references are composed of books and articles from academic journals that relate to topics such as crime analysis, cartography, Geographic Information Systems, crime mapping, and Internet mapping. The Internet resources provided at the end of the document include links to law enforcement agencies that have received funding from the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) as well as links to additional sources of information concerning crime analysis and crime mapping. It should be noted that inclusion of crime analysis and crime mapping software resources does not imply an endorsement or recommendation for any particular product by the Police Foundation or by COPS.          

Crime Analysis and Mapping Product Templates

These templates have been designed to serve as models for law enforcement analysts who wish to prepare standardized crime analysis reports, bulletins, and maps. The Police Foundation’s Crime Mapping & Problem Analysis Laboratory collected over 100 examples of crime analysis reports (annual, monthly, weekly, and daily reports of crime and calls for service), memos, crime trend bulletins, and maps submitted by 20 law enforcement agencies across the U.S. The products we received range from simple, one-page bulletins or maps to more detailed problem-solving reports that include multiple tables, charts, and maps. We categorized and analyzed the reports to look for commonalities in format, content, relevance, and overall effectiveness in conveying information in a concise manner. With this knowledge, we created 11 product templates that can be adapted for use by any law enforcement agency. The templates are included in a file folder entitled Crime Mapping Laboratory Product Templates. A ReadMe file, in pdf format, explains each template and provides instructions for its use.

Frequently Asked Questions of Crime Analysis and Mapping

Available Online

A list of five frequently asked questions and answers to reach a wider audience than those reached by our technical assistance contacts.  The answer to each question includes links to other crime analysis and mapping resources, such as publications and Web pages that provide useful and comprehensive information about that particular topic.

Guidelines to Implement and Evaluate Crime Analysis and Mapping in Law Enforcement

Available Online

A guide for the processes of implementing and evaluating crime analysis and mapping for law enforcement agencies that do not currently have the function in place as well as those that are looking to reevaluate and restructure their current crime analysis and mapping functions.  Provides a general outline for (1) developing a needs assessment, (2) creating an action plan based on the assessment, and (3) conducting an evaluation of crime analysis and mapping. This report is not meant to be a step-by-step guide for these three processes but instead offers suggestions and guidance on what and how to collect relevant information, while citing practical examples.

Integrating Community Policing and Computer Mapping: Assessing Issues and Needs Among COPS Office Grantees

Available Online

This report discusses the results of a telephone survey of 51 law enforcement agencies that have received funding from the COPS Office. This survey was conducted by the Crime Mapping & Problem Analysis Laboratory to determine the agencies’ development as users of computer mapping and to facilitate the successful implementation of the technology. Although the findings of the survey are not generalizable to all agencies, they are suggestive and provide valuable insight into the issues and problems that some law enforcement agencies face as they integrate crime mapping into their operations. 

Introductory Guide to Crime Analysis and Mapping

Available Online

This guide was developed from the curriculum for the AIntroduction to Crime Analysis Mapping and Problem Solving@ training course conducted by the Police Foundation’s Crime Mapping & Problem Analysis Laboratory in 2001 and funded by the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services. The purpose of this document is to convert the information presented in the training into a succinct and readable report that makes it available to a larger audience. It is not intended to be a comprehensive document on crime analysis, crime mapping, and problem solving, but rather a “starter” guidebook for someone just entering the field or a reference manual for current crime analysts or other law enforcement analysts. The format of the document follows the format of the training slides loosely, but it is not necessary to read them together.

Manual of Crime Analysis Map Production

Available Online

Provides guidelines for introductory-level crime analysis mapping for use in a law enforcement environment. To produce accurate and effective crime maps, there are three initial factors to consider: (1) the purpose of the map, (2) the audience for the map, and (3) the types of data to include in the map. These factors often dictate the type of map that will be used and the method of presentation. The manual begins with a brief examination of these initial factors, follows with a discussion of the types of maps and design elements, and concludes with five examples that illustrate the process of crime analysis mapping.

Users’ Guide to Mapping Software for Police Agencies (8th Ed.)

Available Online

Provides an overview of a wide range of mapping software and Geographic Information Systems focusing on their functionality and features that may be of use to law enforcement analysts. Part 1 comprises a detailed review of the desktop GIS applications ArcView, MapInfo, and GeoMedia; Part 2 is a general overview of over 100 computer software products with utility for law enforcement agencies; and Part 3 provides general information about crime mapping software customizations developed by specific police agencies.


Domestic Violence/Child Abuse/Victims

THE COURSE OF DOMESTIC ABUSE AMONG CHICAGO'S ELDERLY: RISK FACTORS, PROTECTIVE BEHAVIORS, AND POLICE INTERVENTION Police Foundation Report (December 2010)

Karen L. Amendola, Meghan G. Slipka, Edwin E. Hamilton, and Julie L. Whitman. (10 pages)
 
This study examines if and how risk factors and protective behaviors affect the course of abuse over time and the role of police in intervening with elderly victims of domestic abuse and/or neglect. The findings suggest that intervention by police officers trained to deal with the elderly and domestic abuse victims can lead to increased engagement in protective behaviors and ultimately reductions in the number of frequently occurring forms of abuse. Implications for the law enforcement community’s response to elder abuse victimization as well as limitations of the study are discussed.

CREATING THE MULTI-DISCIPLINARY RESPONSE TO CHILD SEX ABUSE: IMPLEMENTATION GUIDE (1987)

Mary Ann Wycoff $15.00 (75 pages)
 
This is a report of a study of the implementation processes of five multidisciplinary teams created to handle child sexual abuse cases.

CUSTOMER SATISFACTION: CRIME VICTIMS' WILLINGNESS TO CALL THE POLICE 

Candace Kruttschnitt and Kristin Carbone-Lopez (Ideas in American Policing, Number 12, December 2009) (16 pages)
 
Results from the original victimization survey conducted by the 1967 President’s Crime Commission and the most recent National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) indicate relatively little improvement in citizens’ willingness to call the police when they have been victimized, despite substantial improvements in police recruitment standards and the implementation of community policing. Using data from a sample of women offenders in Minneapolis, who have a low probability of being included in a NCVS, the authors explore who reports crimes to the police and the reasons given for failing to report being victimized. The analyses are confined to crimes of violence perpetrated by intimates, acquaintances, and strangers. Findings indicate both that NCVS data underestimate the extent of non-reporting and that in a substantial number of cases the police failed to respond to citizens’ reports. The authors consider both the practical and theoretical significance of these findings.

DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND THE POLICE: STUDIES IN DETROIT AND KANSAS CITY (1977) 

G. Marie Wilt, James D. Bannon, Ronald K. Breedlove, John W. Kennish, Donald M. Sandker, and Robert K. Sawtell.  $10.00 (146 pages)
 
Gives the results of studies conducted in Detroit and Kansas City (Missouri), which show the importance of threats as predictors of domestic violence.

IMPROVING JOINT INVESTIGATIONS OF CHILD ABUSE: A SUMMARY REPORT (1996)

David Sheppard and Patricia Zangrillo.  $10.00 (34 pages) ISBN 1-884614-12-4
 
Many law enforcement agencies and child protective service units of public child welfare agencies across the nation are conducting joint investigations of reported child abuse.  The impetus for this cooperation comes mainly from state laws requiring or authorizing these two agencies to notify one another of incoming reports of child abuse and to work or cooperate with one another. This cooperation should lessen additional trauma to child victims from repetitious and possibly conflicting investigations and should prove more effective in investigating these often difficult cases.  This report presents program models and guidelines that describe how this interagency collaboration can be accomplished successfully.

METRO-DADE SPOUSE ABUSE REPLICATION PROJECT: TECHNICAL REPORT (1992) 

Antony Pate, Edwin E. Hamilton, and Sampson Annan. $20.00 (199 pages)

Technical report of a study replicating the landmark 1984 Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment that showed that arrest of spouse abuse suspects helped prevent recidivism.

MINNEAPOLIS DOMESTIC VIOLENCE EXPERIMENT. Police Foundation Report (1984)

Lawrence W. Sherman and Richard A. Berk.  (13 pages)
 
Arresting an assailant in a domestic violence case significantly reduces the likelihood of future violence. In the first scientifically controlled test of the effects of arrest for any crime, arrest was found to be the most effective of three standard responses used by police when responding to cases of domestic violence.

PREVENTING REPEAT INCIDENTS OF FAMILY VIOLENCE: A RANDOMIZED FIELD TEST OF A SECOND RESPONDER PROGRAM IN REDLANDS, CALIFORNIA. Police Foundation Report (December 2007)

Robert C. Davis, David Weisburd, and Edwin E. Hamilton (11 pages)
 
This field test, conducted in cooperation of the Redlands, CA, Police Department, sought to vary one of the parameters thought to affect the impact of second response programs. A check of police records and surveys with victims six months after the initial complaint was called did not indicate any reduction in new abuse resulting from any second response condition. The current findings, coupled with earlier research results, strongly suggest that second response programs are at best ineffective in reducing the potential for new abuse and at worst may increase the likelihood of new abusive incidents. Implications for criminal justice policy are discussed.

RICHMOND’S SECOND RESPONDERS: PARTNERING WITH POLICE AGAINST DOMESTIC VIOLENCE. Police Foundation Report. (March 2005)

 
Domestic violence is a significant social problem in the U.S., where over 22 percent of women have suffered an attack by an intimate partner. Over the last two decades, scholars and practitioners have looked into ways to reduce the incidence of domestic violence. One of the strategies being explored employs a broader approach that is both multidisciplinary and multi agency. This report examines the Richmond Second Responders program in which social service caseworkers are summoned by police to the scene of domestic violence incidents to provide assistance and information to victims.

SPOUSE ABUSE RESEARCH RAISES NEW QUESTIONS ABOUT POLICE RESPONSE TO DOMESTIC VIOLENCE.  Police Foundation Report  (October 1992)

(8 pages) ($5 shipping and handling)
 
Report of findings of a study conducted in Dade County, Florida, to examine the relationship between arrest of spouse abuse suspects and their subsequent recidivism.  Deterrence seemed to be largely limited to employed suspects.

Drug Enforcement

DRUGS AND CRIME ACROSS AMERICA: POLICE CHIEFS SPEAK OUT (2004)

 
Drug Strategies and the Police Foundation commissioned Peter D. Hart Research Associates to survey the experience of more than 300 police chiefs across the U.S. who are on the “front lines” in dealing with drugs. This poll builds on a similar survey conducted in 1996 and provides important perspectives on how police chiefs’ attitudes toward drug enforcement have changed in the intervening eight years.

DRUGS AND CRIME ACROSS AMERICA: POLICE CHIEFS SPEAK OUT (1996)

 
A joint Drug Strategies and Police Foundation survey of more than 300 US police chiefs about the drug problem in the U.S.

DRUG ENFORCEMENT IN PUBLIC HOUSING:  SIGNS OF SUCCESS IN DENVER (1993) 

Sampson O. Annan and Wesley G. Skogan. (47 pages) $10.00   ISBN 1-884614-04-3
 
The study assesses the effect of a special narcotics enforcement unit established by the City of Denver in its public housing units. It found that indices measuring drug use, drug arrests, drug availability, and drug-related crime declined during the evaluation period.

DRUGS AND VIOLENCE: POLICE DEPARTMENTS UNDER SIEGE (1990)

($5 shipping and handling)
 
Portfolio of seven issue papers arising from a conference held by the Police Foundation in September 1989 to address the serious problems caused by drugs and violence in cities around the country.

Ethics

THE ABUSE OF POLICE AUTHORITY: A NATIONAL STUDY OF POLICE OFFICERS’ ATTITUDES  (2001) 

David Weisburd, Rosann Greenspan, Edwin E. Hamilton, Kellie A. Bryant, Hubert Williams.  $24.95 (197 pages, 41 tables & figures)   ISBN 1-884614-17-5
 
The results of the first truly representative national survey of how America’s rank-and-file police officers and their supervisors view critical issues of abuse of police authority. Officer responses are also analyzed according to rank, race, region of the U.S., and size of department. The survey instrument with responses is included.  Presented are officers’ views on:
•   Whether abuse of police authority is a necessary byproduct of efforts to reduce and control crime;
•   What types of abuse and attitudes toward abuse are observed in their departments, including the code of silence, whistle- blowing, and the extent to which a citizen’s race, demeanor, and class affect the way they are treated by police; and
•   What strategies or tacticsCincluding first-line supervision, community policing, citizen review boards, and trainingCdo police officers consider to be effective means of preventing police abuse of authority.

ASSESSING LAW ENFORCEMENT ETHICS: SUMMARY REPORT BASED ON THE STUDY CONDUCTED WITH THE OREGON DEPARTMENT OF STATE POLICE (1996)

Karen L. Amendola. $10.00 (30 pages  ISBN 1-884614-10-8
 
The management team of the Oregon Department of State Police took a proactive approach in attempting to understand the prevailing ethical culture in that agency by surveying its officers. With the Police Foundation’s assistance, the OSP embarked on a process of self-examination through the development, administration, and analysis of a department-wide survey of ethical values.

ASSESSING LAW ENFORCEMENT ETHICS: TECHNICAL REPORT BASED ON THE STUDY CONDUCTED WITH THE OREGON DEPARTMENT OF STATE POLICE (1996)

Karen L. Amendola, Cielle Hockman, and Peter Scharf. $15.00 (107 pages  ISBN 1-884614-1-6
 
Technical report of the project described above.

POLICE CORRUPTION: A PERSPECTIVE ON ITS NATURE AND CONTROL (1975)

Herman Goldstein. $10.00 (64 pages)
 
Describes the problem of defining police corruption, assesses the cost and impact of corruption, lists the administrative dilemmas in dealing with it, and discusses some suggested solutions for its control.

Firearms

A RESEARCH AND POLICY REPORT (1977)

Steven Brill and Joan L. Wolfle. $10.00 (107 pages)
 
Concludes that high-priced, brand-name handguns are used as crime weapons as often as cheaper, so-called "Saturday Night Specials."

GUNS IN AMERICA: RESULTS OF A COMPREHENSIVE NATIONAL SURVEY ON FIREARMS OWNERSHIP AND USE (1997)

Philip J. Cook and Jens Ludwig.  $15.00 (94 pages)  ISBN 1-884614-14-0
 
This report presents evidence from a comprehensive national survey on guns in America, the National Survey of Private Ownership of Firearms (NSPOF).  The NSPOF focuses on four central issues: (1) the size, composition, and ownership of America’s gun stock; (2) how and why firearms are acquired; (3) gun storage and carrying; and (4) the defensive use of firearms against criminal attackers.  Also included are attitudes toward gun-control regulation.

PRELUDE TO PROJECT SAFE NEIGHBORHOODS: THE RICHMOND, VIRGINIA, EXPERIENCE. Police Foundation Report (January 2004)

Edwin E. Hamilton. (9 pages)
 
Richmond, Virginia’s successful gun violence reduction program, Project Exile, became a building block for Project Safe Neighborhoods, the massive federal initiative for combating gun violence in the US. With support from the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, the Police Foundation held a series of symposiums across the country that were facilitated by the architects of Project Exile to inform practitioners about factors that were critical to that program’s success.

Immigration

THE ROLE OF LOCAL POLICE: STRIKING A BALANCE BETWEEN IMMIGRATION ENFORCEMENT AND CIVIL LIBERTIES (2009)

Mary Malina, Editor (256 pages) $7.00 shipping & handling  ISBN 978-1-884614-23-1
 
This report presents findings and recommendations from the Police Foundation’s year-long national effort that examined the implications of immigration enforcement at the local level. The project brought together law enforcement executives, policy makers, elected officials, scholars, and community representatives in a series of focus groups across the country and at a national conference in Washington. The report includes research on the rights of undocumented immigrants and the legal framework for enforcement of immigration laws, demographics, immigration and criminality, evaluation of federal efforts to collaborate with local police on immigration enforcement (287(g) program), a national survey of law enforcement executives on immigration issues and local policing, the experience of undocumented youth, and a survey of law enforcement executives attending the foundation conference about their views on local immigration enforcement issues.
 

IMMIGRATION RESOURCES (2008)

 
A resource list demonstrating the focus of the 2008 Police Foundation project and conference: The Role of Local Police: Striking A Balance Between Immigration Enforcement and Civil Liberties. This list contains resources discussing immigration issues such as crime and incarceration and economic impact. It also contains articles and reports discussing the role of local and state government entities in enforcing federal immigration laws, along with associated issues, risks, and consequences.  Additional resources are included and are categorized by source.

Patrol

ISSUES IN POLICE PATROL: A BOOK OF READINGS (1973) 

Thomas J. Sweeney and William Ellingsworth, editors. $25.00 (347 pages)
 
A collection of articles that seek to answer some fundamental questions about patrol:  What is patrol?  What is good patrol?  How does one measure the effectiveness of patrol?  Produced in cooperation with the Kansas City (MO) Police Department.
 

KANSAS CITY PREVENTIVE PATROL EXPERIMENT: A SUMMARY REPORT (1974)

George L. Kelling, Tony Pate, Duane Dieckman, and Charles E. Brown. (56 pages)
 
This landmark experiment found that traditional routine patrol in marked police cars does not appear to affect the level of crime.  Nor does it affect the public’s feeling of security. The experiment demonstrated that urban police departments can successfully test patrol deployment strategies, and that they can manipulate patrol resources without jeopardizing public safety.

KANSAS CITY PREVENTIVE PATROL EXPERIMENT: A TECHNICAL REPORT (1975)

George L. Kelling, Tony Pate, Duane Dieckman, and Charles E. Brown. $60.00 (910 pages)
 
Full technical report of the project described above.

PATROL STAFFING IN SAN DIEGO: ONE- OR TWO-OFFICER UNITS (1977) 

John E. Boydstun, Michael E. Sherry, and Nicholas P. Moelter. $12.60 (228 pages)
 
Compares groups of one- and two-officer units operating in similar, and sometimes hazardous, areas of San Diego and concludes that, at least in San Diego, it is more efficient and safe, and just as effective for the police to staff patrol cars with one officer as with two.

POLICE RESPONSE TIME: ITS DETERMINANTS AND EFFECTS (1976)

Tony Pate, Amy Ferrara, Robert A. Bowers, Jon Lorence. (66 pages)
Available Online
 
Suggests that the length of time the police take in responding to citizens’ calls for service is not always a strong, direct factor affecting citizen satisfaction with police service.

THREE APPROACHES TO CRIMINAL APPREHENSION IN KANSAS CITY: AN EVALUATION REPORT (1976) 

Tony Pate,  Robert A. Bowers, and Ron Parks.  $10.50 (124 pages)
 
Regularly provided data on known serious offenders to patrol units through a crime information center produced increased arrests among those offenders.

Personnel

THE BIG SIX: POLICING AMERICA'S LARGEST CITIES (1991) 

Antony Pate and Edwin E. Hamilton. $20.00 (262 pages)
 
This exhaustive 262-page report compares the policies, procedures, and practices of the nation's six largest police departments:  Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and Philadelphia. The study, conducted in cooperation with all six departments, illustrates the many similarities and differences among them.  Over 200 graphs and tables present data on the nature of the six cities and their police agencies.

THE DALLAS EXPERIENCE (1978) 

Mary Ann Wycoff and George L. Kelling.
Volume I: Organizational Reform  $10.00 (114 pages)
Volume II: Human Resources Development   $15.00 (186 pages) (limited copies)
 
Describes the political and organizational history of a failed attempt to bring about radical change in a major American police department. Volume I analyzes the history of the project, the problems that developed, and the impact of those problems on attaining the goals of the project. Volume II describes the formal empirical evaluation of the Dallas Police Department human resources development program, and provides the results.
 

GUIDELINES AND PAPERS FROM THE NATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON POLICE LABOR RELATIONS (1974)

$10.00 (77 pages)
 
Papers developed during a symposium sponsored by the Police Foundation, the International Association of Chiefs of Police, and the Labor Relations Management Service. Contains policy recommendations on police labor issues from a group of police chiefs, city managers, mayors, county executives, and union officials.

KANSAS CITY PEER REVIEW PANEL:  AN EVALUATION REPORT (1976) 

Tony Pate, Jack W. McCullough, Robert A. Bowers, and Amy Ferrara. $10.00 (101 pages)
 
This report evaluates the peer review of officers who have received a large number of citizen complaints. Produced in cooperation with the Midwest Research Institute.

THE NEW YORK CITY POLICE CADET CORPS EVALUATION TECHNICAL REPORT (1992) 

Antony Pate and Edwin E. Hamilton.  $15.00 (126 pages)
 
Technical report of the study of a New York City Police Department program that employed innovative recruitment techniques to increase the number of college educated police officers. 

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL IN POLICE DEPARTMENTS (1977) 

Frank J. Landy.  $10.00 (48 pages)
 
Considers the technical aspects of evaluating a police officer's performance, including the characteristics of evaluation forms and the uses of appraisal information.      

POLICE CHIEF SELECTION: A HANDBOOK FOR LOCAL GOVERNMENT (1976) 

Michael J. Kelly. $15.00 (155 pages)
 
Provides a general discussion of the problems and possibilities of police chief selection, some convenient checklists of issues arising during chief selection, and specific examples of selection procedures and documents used by municipal executives and search groups.

THE POLICE AND INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT: THIRD-PARTY INTERVENTION APPROACHES (1976) 

Morton Bard and Joseph Zacker. $10.00 (59 pages)
 
Based on a study involving 20 police officers in the Norwalk, CT, Department of Police Services.  Concludes that repeated use of three selected intervention approachesCauthority, negotiation, and counselingCled a majority of test officers to decide that negotiation was the most important approach for police recruits to learn.

POLICE OFFICER HEIGHT AND SELECTED ASPECTS OF PERFORMANCE (1975) 

Thomas W. White and Peter B. Bloch. $10.00 (120 pages)
 
Offers findings about perceived and misperceived relationships between height and performance.

POLICE PERSONNEL EXCHANGE PROGRAMS: THE BAY AREA EXPERIENCE (1976) 

William J. Baer.  $10.00 (58 pages)
 
Guide to developing and carrying out personnel exchange programs among police departments, based on the experience of six California Bay Area police departments.

POLICE PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS: THE DALLAS AND DADE COUNTY EXPERIENCES (1977) 

Wayne F. Cascio.  $10.00 (55 pages)
 
Discusses the technical aspect of implementing police personnel management systems, including needs analysis, system objectives, and the problems and costs involved.

POLICE PRACTICES: THE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE SURVEY (1978)

John F. Heaphy, editor. $15.00 (234 pages)
 
Published in cooperation with the Kansas City, MO, Police Department and with the assistance of the Police Executive Research Forum.  An expanded version of the General Administrative Survey begun by the Kansas City Police Department in 1951.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON HIGHER EDUCATION FOR POLICE OFFICERS (1979) 

$10.00 (115 pages)
 
Deliberations of panels composed of representatives of police organizations and agencies, community advocates, and educators to examine the future of higher education for police.  Developed in cooperation with the National Advisory Commission on Higher Education for Police Officers and the Office of Criminal Justice Education and Training.

READINGS ON PRODUCTIVITY IN POLICING (1975) 

Joan L. Wolfle and John F. Heaphy, Editors. $10.00 (149 pages) (limited copies available)
 
Collection of articles that examine ways that departments can measure and increase their productivity within limited budgets.

RECONCILING HIGHER EDUCATIONAL STANDARDS AND MINORITY RECRUITMENT: THE NEW YORK CITY MODEL. Police Foundation Report (September 1992)

($5 shipping and handling) (8 pages)
 
Findings of a study of New York City's innovative Police Cadet Corps. The study found that police departments could improve levels of education and simultaneously increase minority representation.

SELECTING THE BEST ANALYST FOR THE JOB: A MODEL CRIME ANALYST ASSESSMENT PROCESS FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES (2010) 

Karen L. Amendola and Greg Jones (72 pages + appendices on CD) ISBN 978-1-884614-24-8
To order a printed copy with the CD-ROM, contact the COPS Response Center at 1-800-421-6770 or use the COPS Publications Request Form. Please note the book was updated in December 2010 and that version is currently available online only.
 
The rapid growth in applications and usage of crime mapping and analysis in law enforcement agencies in recent years has increased job opportunities for new analysts. Recognizing the importance of creating hiring standards and a systematic and comprehensive hiring process for selecting highly capable crime analysts, and with the support of the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, the Police Foundation developed Selecting the Best Analyst for the Job: A Model Crime Analyst Assessment Process for Law Enforcement Agencies (CAAP). The enclosed publication and accompanying CD-ROM focus on defining the job of a crime analyst and on a model procedure for selecting the best possible crime analyst for an agency.      

SELECTION THROUGH ASSESSMENT CENTERS: A TOOL FOR POLICE DEPARTMENTS (1977) 

Roger Reinke.  $10.00 (45 pages)
 
Informs police personnel managers and executives about the assessment center technique for selecting and promoting police officers.

Practices and Strategies

CATCHING CAREER CRIMINALS:  THE WASHINGTON, DC, REPEAT OFFENDER PROJECT. Police Foundation Report  (1986)

Susan E. Martin and Lawrence W. Sherman. $5.00 (19 pages)
 
Concludes that large police departments should consider creating repeat offender units as a means of dealing with career criminals.

THE POLICE FOUNDATION DISPLACEMENT AND DIFFUSION STUDY. Police Foundation Report (September 2010)

David Weisburd, Laura A. Wycoff, Justin Ready, John E. Eck, Josh Hinkle, and Frank Gajewski. (14 pages)
 
Recent studies point to the potential theoretical and practical benefits of focusing police resources on crime hot spots. However, many scholars have noted that such approaches risk displacing crime or disorder to other places where programs are not in place. Although much attention has been paid to the idea of displacement, methodological problems associated with measuring it have often been overlooked. We try to fill these gaps in measurement and understanding of displacement and the related phenomenon of diffusion of crime control benefits. Our main focus is on immediate spatial displacement or diffusion of crime to areas near the targeted sites of an intervention.
     Do focused crime prevention efforts at places simply result in a movement of offenders to areas nearby targeted sites—do they simply move crime around the corner? Or, conversely, will a crime prevention effort focusing on specific places lead to improvement in areas nearby—what has come to be termed a diffusion of crime control benefits? Our data are drawn from a controlled study of displacement and diffusion in Jersey City, New Jersey. Our findings indicate that, at least for crime markets involving drugs and prostitution, crime does not simply move around the corner. Indeed, this study supports the position that the most likely outcome of such focused crime prevention efforts is a diffusion of crime control benefits to nearby areas.

EVIDENCE-BASED POLICING 

Lawrence W. Sherman (Ideas in American Policing, Number 2, July 1998) (16 pages)
 
Lawrence Sherman examines how the new paradigm of “evidence-based medicine” holds important implications for policing. It suggests that just doing research is not enough and that proactive efforts are required to push accumulated research evidence into practice through national and community guidelines. National pressure to adopt this paradigm could come from agency-ranking studies, but police agency capacity to adopt it will require new data systems creating “medical charts” for crime victims, annual audits of crime reporting systems, and in-house “evidence cops”.

LEARNING ABOUT LEARNING FROM ERROR

James M. Doyle (Ideas in American Policing, Number 14, May 2012) (16 pages)
 
Wrongful convictions and other criminal justice system errors can be seen as organizational accidents in which small mistakes (no one of which would suffice to cause the event) combine with each other and with latent defects in the criminal justice system to create disasters. In his essay, James Doyle proposes how employing this conception of error in a consistent routine of examination of wrongful convictions, near misses, and other errors can increase the impact of the lessons of error, mitigate the fragmentation of the criminal justice system, and lay the foundation, as it has in medicine and aviation, for the creation of a culture of safety. Doyle offers that the police community is well-placed to play a leading role in marking out and defending the common ground on which an all-stakeholders process of learning from completed errors and near misses of all kinds can take place.
 

MANAGING INVESTIGATIONS: THE ROCHESTER SYSTEM (1976)

Peter B. Bloch and James Bell.  $10.00 (86 pages)
 
Examines why patrol officers and detectives working in teams in Rochester, New York, were having more overall success in solving crimes than were detectives operating in traditional ways.

PLACE-BASED POLICING

David Weisburd (Ideasin American Policing, Number 9, January 2008) (16 pages)
 
The core practices of policing assume that people, whether victims or offenders, are the key units of police work, but police in recent years have also begun to think about the situations and places that are the context of crime. In this essay, David Weisburd argues that police should put places rather than people at the center of police practices. Place-based policing, Weisburd explains, is more efficient as a focus of police actions; provides a more stable target for police activities; has a stronger evidence base; and raises fewer ethical and legal problems. He suggests practical ways in which places can become a key component of the databases police use, of the geographic organization of police activities, of the strategic approaches that police employ to combat crime and disorder, and in the definitions of the role of the police in urban settings.

PROBLEM ANALYSIS IN POLICING (2003)

Rachel Boba (64 pages) ($5 shipping and handling) ISBN 1-884614-18-3

This report introduces and defines problem analysis and provides guidance on how it can be integrated and institutionalized into modern policing practice. Not a “how to” guide, this report is a summary of ideas and recommendations about what problem analysis is, what skills and knowledge are necessary to conduct it, and how it can be advanced by the police community, academia, the federal government, and other institutions. The ideas and recommendations in this report come primarily from a two-day forum conducted by the Police Foundation and the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, in which a group of academics, practitioners, and policy makers came together to discuss problem analysis and make recommendations for its progress.

PRELUDE TO PROJECT SAFE NEIGHBORHOODS: THE RICHMOND, VIRGINIA, EXPERIENCE. Police Foundation Report (January 2004)

Edwin E. Hamilton. (9 pages)
 
Richmond, Virginia’s successful gun violence reduction program, Project Exile, became a building block for Project Safe Neighborhoods, the massive federal initiative for combating gun violence in the US. With support from the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, the Police Foundation held a series of symposiums across the country that were facilitated by the architects of Project Exile to inform practitioners about factors that were critical to that program’s success.

THE QUALITY OF POLICE ARREST STATISTICS. Police Foundation Report (August 1984)

Lawrence W. Sherman, Barry D. Glick. (10 pages)
 
For both operational planning and basic research, arrest data are an indispensable tool. This report shows how and why arrest statistics are not comparable across police departments.

RANDOM DIGIT DIALING: LOWERING THE COST OF VICTIMIZATION SURVEYS (1976)

Alfred J. Tuchfarber and William R. Klecka.  $10.00 (157 pages)
 
Shows that police agencies and researchers, for a fraction of the cost of standard, expensive, face-to-face surveys, can use equally effective telephone surveys to measure crime in their communities.

THE ROLE OF MUNICIPAL POLICE: RESEARCH AS PRELUDE TO CHANGING IT. Executive Summary (1982)

Mary Ann Wycoff.  $5.00 (58 pages)
 
This monograph examines the capacity of existing empirical data about the police function to answer the following questions: (1) what do municipal police in the U.S. actually do? (2) what do citizens and police believe the police do? and (3) what do citizens and police believe the police should do?    

SAN DIEGO FIELD INTERROGATIONS: FINAL REPORT (1975)

John E. Boydstun.  $10.50 (131 pages)
 
Results of an experiment, evaluated by the System Development Corporation, showing that police field interrogation as practiced in San Diego is helpful in deterring certain crimes, particularly those committed by youths in groups.

STOP. SHOULD YOU ARREST THAT PERSON? (1987)

Hubert Williams, Brian Forst, and Edwin E. Hamilton.  ($5 shipping and handling) (4 pages)
 
An experiment testing the effect of arrest on a sample of 1,600 shoplifting offenders. This is a reprint from Security Management magazine.

TRANSLATING POLICE RESEARCH INTO PRACTICE (Ideas in American Policing, Number 11, August 2009) 

Cynthia Lum (16 pages)
 
In the second Ideas in American Policing lecture, Lawrence Sherman argued that “…police practices should be based on scientific evidence about what works best.” That is, if the police want to reduce and prevent crime, they have to rely on tactics that are supported by information, analysis, and evidence showing effectiveness. Eleven years later, the idea of evidence-based policing, while seemingly logical and beneficial, has yet to diffuse widely into law enforcement. Cynthia Lum explores the reasons for the lag in the adoption of evidence-based policing, and introduces a tool, the Evidence-Based Policing Matrix, which may better facilitate translating research into practice. In order for police agencies to move toward evidence-based policing, the underlying research and practice infrastructure that has already been built for such efforts must be capitalized upon and a concerted effort is required between police practitioners, evaluation researchers, and funding agencies.

Shift Length

THE SHIFT LENGTH EXPERIMENT: WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT 8-, 10-, AND 12-HOUR SHIFTS IN POLICING  (December 2011)

Karen L. Amendola, David Weisburd, Edwin E. Hamilton, Greg Jones, Meghan Slipka
Print copies: $10.00 (includes shipping and handling) (60 Pages)
 
This report presents the results of the first known comprehensive randomized experiment of compressed workweeks in law enforcement. The experiment was designed to test the impacts of three shift lengths (8-, 10-, and 12-hour) on performance, health, safety, quality of life, sleep, fatigue, alertness, off-duty employment, and overtime among police. In addition to scientifically rigorous research design and methodology, the number of reliable outcome measures employed to analyze the impact of shift length, including departmental data, laboratory simulations and exercises, and previously validated self-report instruments, make this study one of the most comprehensive ever undertaken in this area. The experiment was conducted in the Detroit (MI) and Arlington (TX) Police Departments between January 2007 and June 2009. The study found some distinct advantages of 10-hour shifts and identified some disadvantages associated with 12-hour shifts that are concerning.
 
In addition to the primary project report above, additional reports from the shift length experiment are available as follows.

Results of a Random National Survey of Police Agencies:

As part of the shift length experiment, the Police Foundation conducted a random telephone survey of 300 police agencies to determine the proportion of agencies that have adopted compressed schedules. We also examined variables based on agency size and the use of shift rotation, as well as trends associated with each over time. The purposes of this telephone survey, conducted first in November 2005 and again in November 2009, were to determine the proportion of agencies that use compressed shift schedules (e.g., 8-, 10-, or 12- hour shifts or some variation) for their field patrol officers, and to identify the extent to which agencies employ rotating shifts.  The first report below is a comparison report of the survey results in Time One and Time Two.

TRENDS IN SHIFT LENGTH: RESULTS OF A RANDOM NATIONAL SURVEY OF POLICE AGENCIES Police Foundation Report, December 2011

Karen L. Amendola, Meghan G. Slipka, Edwin E. Hamilton, with Michael Soelberg and Kristen Koval (155 KB) 7 Pages
 
Over the past several years many agencies have abandoned the 8-hour work schedule in favor of alternatives. Nevertheless, the largest agencies have continued todemonstrate a preference for 10-hour shifts during the same period. However, the proportion of medium-sized agencies with 10-hour shifts dropped during the same period as did those with 8-hour shifts, with an increasing number of those agencies opting for 12-hour shifts.
 

LAW ENFORCEMENT SHIFT SCHEDULES: RESULTS OF A 2009 RANDOM NATIONAL SURVEY OF POLICE AGENCIES, November 2011

Karen L. Amendola, Meghan G. Slipka, Edwin E. Hamilton, Michael Soelberg (132 KB) 6 Pages
 

LAW ENFORCEMENT SHIFT SCHEDULES: RESULTS OF A 2005 RANDOM NATIONAL SURVEY OF POLICE AGENCIES, May 2006; revised November 2011.

Karen L. Amendola. Edwin E. Hamilton, Laura A. Wyckoff (127 KB) 5 Pages

Final reports submitted to the National Institute of Justice:

THE IMPACT OF SHIFT LENGTH IN POLICING ON PERFORMANCE, HEALTH, QUALITY OF LIFE, SLEEP, FATIGUE, AND EXTRA-DUTY EMPLOYMENT 

Karen L. Amendola, David Weisburd, Edwin E. Hamilton, Greg Jones, Meghan Slipka
Full technical report , December 2011 (4.52 MB) 201 pages
Executive summary, March 2011(199 KB) 24 pages
 

Terrorism / Homeland Security

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE PREPAREDNESS OF PRIVATE SECURITY IN SHOPPING MALLS TO PREVENT AND RESPOND TO TERRORIST ATTACK (2006)

Full Report (Robert C. Davis, Christopher Ortiz, Robert Rowe, Joseph Broz, George Rigakos, Pam Collins (50 pages))
 
Research Brief
Available Online
 
The Police Foundation’s final report to the National Institute of Justice, this detailed assessment indicates what malls are doing in the areas of risk assessments, preventive measures, emergency preparedness plans, training, and coordination with state and local government. The comprehensive picture that emerges of the state of security in large retail malls suggests that (a) there are significant gaps in preparedness, (b) there are relatively inexpensive steps that can be taken to fill those gaps, and (c) state homeland security officials and local police as well as mall owners and have a role to play in filling those gaps.

INTEGRATED INTELLIGENCE AND CRIME ANALYSIS: ENHANCED INFORMATION MANAGEMENT FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT LEADERS (2007)

Jerry H. Ratcliffe
(48 pages) ($5 shipping and handling)   ISBN 978 1 884614 21 7
 
Data and information about the criminal environment and criminal activity abound: the challenge is to corral this wealth of data into knowledge that can enhance decision making, improve strategies to combat crime, and increase crime prevention benefits. In other words, the aim is to convert data and information into actionable intelligence. This report is designed to identify the key challenges limiting criminal intelligence sharing, the aims of the integrated analysis model, and the way that all police departments, big or small, can work individually and collectively towards the new intelligence led policing paradigm of modern policing.

POLICING TERRORISM (Ideas in American Policing, Number 15, July 2012)

Gary LaFree (12 pages)
 
Worldwide terrorist attacks are about as common today as they have been in any period over the past forty years. However, most terrorism has domestic sources, and attacks from abroad that target the American homeland have been exceedingly rare. While terrorist attacks are concentrated in big cities, data show that every single US state has had at least one attack since 1970. In general, terrorism has less in common with common law crimes like homicide and robbery than with offenses that have gained prominence more recently like hate and drug-related crimes. While terrorism raises important challenges for policing, there is evidence that  the strong connections to community that produce the best results for policing in general may also be the same characteristics that are most useful in preventing terrorist attacks and responding to those that are carried out. The balance between counterterrorism effectiveness and maintaining the trust of communities should not be taken lightly but in some ways resembles the challenges police have long faced in responding to crimes that require proactive rather than reactive methods.  It is clear that effective measures against terrorism are likely to rely heavily on the support of sworn police officers across the United States. 

POST 9-11 POLICING

In 2004, with funding from the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the International Association of Chiefs of Police, the National Sheriffs' Association, the National Organization of Black Law Enforcement Executives, the Major Cities Chiefs Association, and the Police Foundation undertook a project to help position state, local, and tribal agencies to proactively manage a changed and continually changing police environment. The four promising practice monographs listed below were published in September 2005 and are available from the National Criminal Justice Reference Service, www.ncjrs.gov/
 
• Intelligence Led Policing: The New Intelligence Architecture (NCJ 210681)
• Assessing and Managing the Terrorism Threat (NCJ 210680)
• Engaging the Private Sector To Promote Homeland Security: Law Enforcement Private Security Partnerships (NCJ 210678)
• Mutual Aid: Multijurisdictional Partnerships for Meeting Regional Needs (NCJ 210679)

Use of Force

THE ABUSE OF POLICE AUTHORITY: A NATIONAL STUDY OF POLICE OFFICERS’ ATTITUDES (2001)

David Weisburd, Rosann Greenspan, Edwin E. Hamilton, Kellie A. Bryant, Hubert Williams.  $24.95 (197 pages, 41 tables/figures)  ISBN 1-884614-17-5
 
The results of the first truly representative national survey of how America’s rank-and-file police officers and their supervisors view critical issues of abuse of police authority. Officer responses are also analyzed according to rank, race, region of the U.S., and size of department. The survey instrument with responses is included. Presented are officers’ views on:
 
•  Whether abuse of police authority is a necessary byproduct of efforts to reduce and control crime;
•  What types of abuse and attitudes toward abuse are observed in their departments, including the code of silence, whistle blowing, and the extent to which a citizen’s race, demeanor, and class affect the way they are treated by police; and
•  What strategies or tactics—including first-line supervision, community policing, citizen review boards, and training—do police officers consider to be effective means of preventing police abuse of authority.

OFFICER BEHAVIOR IN POLICE-CITIZEN ENCOUNTERS: A DESCRIPTIVE MODEL AND IMPLICATIONS FOR LESS-THAN-LETHAL ALTERNATIVES. Police Foundation Report (September 1996)

Karen L. Amendola. ($5 shipping and handling)
 
A descriptive model of police-citizen encounters and the role of the police officer in them is presented in this report. This model is built on the understanding that in determining influences on officer behavior, it is more important to focus on risk factors present in all these encounters rather than simply on the type of situation.  This report is part of a larger study which analyzed data concerning several types of police-citizen encounters to ascertain characteristics of those encounters, paying particular attention to how control tactics and technologies might be applied.

POLICE PURSUITS AFTER SCOTT V. HARRIS: FAR FROM IDEAL? (Ideas in American Policing, Number 10, June 2008)

Geoffrey P. Alpert and William C. Smith (16 pages)
 
Police pursuits remain one of the most dangerous activities in which the police participate.  Every high-speed pursuit involves a serious threat to innocent bystanders, officers and suspects. For years, agencies as well as the courts have used the facts and holdings in Tennessee v Garner to determine when deadly force can be used in a pursuit. Since the Garner decision in 1985, it has been understood that the police may not use deadly force to seize a fleeing suspect unless the suspect poses a significant threat of death or serious bodily harm to officers or others.  This paper looks at the U.S. Supreme Court’s recent analysis of Garner in the Scott v Harris decision and discusses the implication that analysis may have for policing in America.

POLICE SHOOTINGS AND THE PROSECUTOR IN LOS ANGELES COUNTY:  AN EVALUATION OF OPERATION ROLLOUT (1981)

Craig D. Uchida, Lawrence W. Sherman, and James J. Fyfe. $15.00 (72 pages)
 
This report evaluates Operation Rollout, a program of the Los Angeles County District Attorney's Office for investigating shooting incidents involving police officers. Under Operation Rollout, a deputy district attorney and district attorney investigator were called at any hour of day or night to evaluate the wounding or killing of citizens by police.

POLICE USE OF DEADLY FORCE (1977)

Catherine H. Milton, Jeanne Wahl Halleck, James Lardner, and Gary L. Abrecht. $10.00 (194 pages)
 
Based on an extensive review of literature on the subject of police use of deadly force and a survey of seven major cities. Police departments differ widely in their policies governing the use of deadly force, but in most large cities there appears to be increased restraint in police use of firearms.

POLICE USE OF FORCE:  OFFICIAL REPORTS, CITIZEN COMPLAINTS, AND LEGAL CONSEQUENCES (1993)

Antony M. Pate and Lorie A. Fridell, with the assistance of Edwin E. Hamilton.
$25.00, two-volume set (360 pages) ISBN 1-884614-00-0
 
A 360-page report of the first nationwide survey of law enforcement agencies regarding (1) the extent to which police use force, (2) the policies and procedures governing the use of force, (3) the rates and dispositions of citizen complaints, (4) the characteristics of officers and citizens involved in those complaints, and (5) civil suits and criminal charges stemming from alleged excessive force.  It provides a baseline for future analyses of these matters.

READINGS ON POLICE USE OF DEADLY FORCE (1982)

James J. Fyfe, Editor.
$15.00 (316 pages)
 
An anthology of major articles from some of the nation's leading experts on police authority to use deadly force.

SOCIAL THEORY AND THE STREET COP: THE CASE OF DEADLY FORCE (June 2005)

David Klinger. (Ideas in American Policing, No. 7, June 2005) (16 pages)
 
Officer involved shootings are low frequency events, yet they are an enduring public concern with often profound social consequences. In this monograph, David Klinger examines how social theory can help officers to deal better with violent incidents and other potentially threatening situations. It also explains how social theory can help the public to understand better what they can realistically expect from those who have sworn to serve and protect them.

Women in Policing

ON THE MOVE:  THE STATUS OF WOMEN IN POLICING (1990)

Susan E. Martin.  $15.00 (197 pages)
 
Documents the greater role that women have come to play in policing since Police Foundation research a decade earlier proved that women could be effective patrol officers. Surveys 446 police departments and all state agencies; reveals women have made major inroads into policing in a relatively short period of time. It also suggests, however, that much more progress needs to be made. Recommendations and tables interspersed throughout the chapters.

POLICEWOMEN ON PATROL (1974)

Peter B. Bloch and Deborah Anderson.
Volume I  $10.00 (65 pages)
Volume II (Methodology, Tables, and Measurement Instruments) - $20.00 (258 pages)
Final Report  $15.00 (67 pages)
 
This study demonstrates that gender is not a valid reason to bar women from patrol work. Women perform patrol tasks as well as men. The attitudes and behaviors of some male officers, however, may create personnel problems if not properly addressed by managers.

WOMEN IN POLICING: A MANUAL (1974)

Catherine Higgs Milton, Ava Abramowitz, Laura Crites, Margaret Gates, Ellen Mintz, and Georgette Sandler. $15.00 (100 pages)
 
Includes discussion of basic issues about the role of womenCsuch as recruitment, training selection development of operational guidelines, promotions, and performance, as well as the resistance that women encounter.

WOMEN IN POLICING: A PROGRESS REPORT (1981)

Cynthia G. Sulton and Roi D. Townsey.  $15.00 (113 pages)
 
Explores the extent to which women are employed as sworn officers in state and municipal police departments across the U.S.  Analyzes the effects of specific personnel practices designed to support full employment of women in policing.

WOMEN ON THE MOVE?  A REPORT ON THE STATUS OF WOMEN IN POLICING. Police Foundation Report (May 1989)

Susan E. Martin. ($5 shipping and handling)  (8 pages)
 
Eight-page summary of full report, On the Move: The Status of Women in Policing.

Ideas in American Policing

Ideas in American Policing presents commentary and insight from leading criminologists on issues of interest to practitioners, scholars, and policy makers. The papers published in this series are from the Police Foundation lecture series of the same name.     

POLICING IN AMERICA: ASSESSMENT AND PROSPECTS  

David H. Bayley  (Number 1, February 1998) (8 pages)
 
In the first monograph in the Ideas in American Policing series, David Bayley addresses three questions: (1) what is distinctive about American policing? (2) what are the major changes that have occurred in American policing over the last 30 years? and (3) what are the factors currently shaping American policing?

EVIDENCE-BASED POLICING 

Lawrence W. Sherman (Number 2, July 1998) (16 pages)
 
Lawrence Sherman examines how the new paradigm of “evidence-based medicine” holds important implications for policing. It suggests that just doing research is not enough and that proactive efforts are required to push accumulated research evidence into practice through national and community guidelines. National pressure to adopt this paradigm could come from agency-ranking studies, but police agency capacity to adopt it will require new data systems creating “medical charts” for crime victims, annual audits of crime reporting systems, and in-house “evidence cops”.

POLICING FOR PEOPLE  

Stephen D. Mastrofski  (Number 3, March 1999) (12 pages)
 
Stephen Mastrofski identifies six characteristics that Americans associate with good service from their police: attentiveness, reliability, responsiveness, competence, manners, and fairness. He assesses how police are doing at “policing for people” and offers a reform agenda that promotes its practice.    

ON DEMOCRATIC POLICING 

Jerome H. Skolnick (Number 4, August 1999) (8 pages)
 
From Aristotle to William Bratton, the fundamental principles of democratic policing are explored by Jerome Skolnick. Skolnick examines police strategies and practices that challenge the delicate balance of maintaining public safety without sacrificing basic freedoms.

POLICING ANONYMITY 

Donald W. Foster (Number 5, December 2001) (12 pages)
 
A professor of English at Vassar College, Donald Foster is also an attributional expert, and works with law enforcement agencies and the media to determine authorship of disputed documents, including forgeries, threats, ransom notes, and anonymous tips. He is best known for identifying Joe Klein as the author of the anonymous novel, Primary Colors, and for identifying Shakespeare as the writer of a previously unattributed funeral poem. In Policing Anonymity, Foster discusses the kinds of problems posed by anonymous writings in criminal investigations, and how best to address those problems from the crime scene to the courtroom.

POLICE DEPARTMENTS AS LEARNING LABORATORIES  

Edward R. Maguire (Number 6, August 2004) (16 pages)
 
Police agencies are often unable to state with any degree of precision how their performance has changed over time or how it compares with their peers. Edward Maguire proposes how police agencies can make greater use of information and measurement to enhance their capacity for organizational learning and assessment.

SOCIAL THEORY AND THE STREET COP: THE CASE OF DEADLY FORCE 

David Klinger (Number 7, June 2005) (16 pages)
 
Officer involved shootings are low frequency events, yet they are an enduring public concern with often profound social consequences. David Klinger examines how social theory can help officers to deal better with violent incidents and other potentially threatening situations. It also explains how social theory can help the public to understand better what they can realistically expect from those who have sworn to serve and protect them.

LAW ENFORCEMENT FOR LAWABIDERS

Tracey L. Meares (Number 8, January 2007) (8 pages)
 
Why do people comply with the law? Tracey Meares explores the power of private social control in controlling and reducing crime. By employing strategies that enhance legitimacy and accountability, police can be catalysts for promoting law-abiding behavior, particularly in crime plagued communities.

PLACE-BASED POLICING

David Weisburd (Number 9, January 2008) (16 pages)
 
The core practices of policing assume that people, whether victims or offenders, are the key units of police work, but police in recent years have also begun to think about the situations and places that are the context of crime. In this essay, David Weisburd argues that police should put places rather than people at the center of police practices. Place-based policing, Weisburd explains, is more efficient as a focus of police actions; provides a more stable target for police activities; has a stronger evidence base; and raises fewer ethical and legal problems. He suggests practical ways in which places can become a key component of the databases police use, of the geographic organization of police activities, of the strategic approaches that police employ to combat crime and disorder, and in the definitions of the role of the police in urban settings.     

POLICE PURSUITS AFTER SCOTT V. HARRIS: FAR FROM IDEAL?

Geoffrey P. Alpert and William C. Smith (Number 10, June 2008) (16 pages)

Police pursuits remain one of the most dangerous activities in which the police participate. Every high-speed pursuit involves a serious threat to innocent bystanders, officers, and suspects. For years, agencies as well as the courts have used the facts and holdings in Tennessee v. Garner to determine when deadly force can be used in a pursuit. Since the Garner decision in 1985, it has been understood that the police may not use deadly force to seize a fleeing suspect unless the suspect poses a significant threat of death or serious bodily harm to officers or others. This paper looks at the U.S. Supreme Court’s analysis of Garner in the Scott v. Harris decision and discusses the implications it may have for policing in America.

TRANSLATING POLICE RESEARCH INTO PRACTICE  

Cynthia Lum (Number 11, August 2009) (16 pages)

In the second Ideas in American Policing lecture, Lawrence Sherman argued that “…police practices should be based on scientific evidence about what works best.” That is, if the police want to reduce and prevent crime, they have to rely on tactics that are supported by information, analysis, and evidence showing effectiveness. Eleven years later, the idea of evidence-based policing, while seemingly logical and beneficial, has yet to diffuse widely into law enforcement. Cynthia Lum explores the reasons for the lag in the adoption of evidence-based policing, and introduces a tool, the Evidence-Based Policing Matrix, which may better facilitate translating research into practice. In order for police agencies to move toward evidence-based policing, the underlying research and practice infrastructure that has already been built for such efforts must be capitalized upon and a concerted effort is required between police practitioners, evaluation researchers, and funding agencies.

CUSTOMER SATISFACTION: CRIME VICTIMS' WILLINGNESS TO CALL THE POLICE

Candace Kruttschnitt and Kristin Carbone-Lopez (Number 12, December 2009) (16 pages)
 
Results from the original victimization survey conducted by the 1967 President’s Crime Commission and the most recent National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) indicate relatively little improvement in citizens’ willingness to call the police when they have been victimized, despite substantial improvements in police recruitment standards and the implementation of community policing. Using data from a sample of women offenders in Minneapolis, who have a low probability of being included in a NCVS, the authors explore who reports crimes to the police and the reasons given for failing to report being victimized. The analyses are confined to crimes of violence perpetrated by intimates, acquaintances, and strangers. Findings indicate both that NCVS data underestimate the extent of non-reporting and that in a substantial number of cases the police failed to respond to citizens’ reports. The authors consider both the practical and theoretical significance of these findings.   

POLICING THROUGH HUMAN RIGHTS

Jack R. Greene (Number 13, December 2010) (20 pages)
 
Democratic policing is founded on the idea that the police must enforce the law, within the law—a law that values individual and human rights. Jack Greene considers how policing in America and elsewhere can embrace human rights as a central tenant of effective law enforcement, thereby improving how the police function as well as their acceptance in the larger community. The essay gives voice to how the police secure, uphold, and affirm human rights in their day-to-day activities, protecting the vulnerable, assuring that those brought before the law are accorded legal rights and dignity, and reaffirming human rights in the aftermath of traumatic events. Policing Through Human Rights affirms American policing through its foundational values, helping to ensure greater police awareness of their role in the protection of human rights and greater community support for police interventions.

LEARNING ABOUT LEARNING FROM ERROR

James M. Doyle (Number 14, May 2012) (16 pages)
 
Wrongful convictions and other criminal justice system errors can be seen as organizational accidents in which small mistakes (no one of which would suffice to cause the event) combine with each other and with latent defects in the criminal justice system to create disasters. In his essay, James Doyle proposes how employing this conception of error in a consistent routine of examination of wrongful convictions, near misses, and other errors can increase the impact of the lessons of error, mitigate the fragmentation of the criminal justice system, and lay the foundation, as it has in medicine and aviation, for the creation of a culture of safety. Doyle offers that the police community is well-placed to play a leading role in marking out and defending the common ground on which an all-stakeholders process of learning from completed errors and near misses of all kinds can take place.

POLICING TERRORISM

Gary LaFree (Number 15, July 2012) (12 pages)
 
Worldwide terrorist attacks are about as common today as they have been in any period over the past forty years. However, most terrorism has domestic sources, and attacks from abroad that target the American homeland have been exceedingly rare. While terrorist attacks are concentrated in big cities, data show that every single US state has had at least one attack since 1970. In general, terrorism has less in common with common law crimes like homicide and robbery than with offenses that have gained prominence more recently like hate and drug-related crimes. While terrorism raises important challenges for policing, there is evidence that  the strong connections to community that produce the best results for policing in general may also be the same characteristics that are most useful in preventing terrorist attacks and responding to those that are carried out. The balance between counterterrorism effectiveness and maintaining the trust of communities should not be taken lightly but in some ways resembles the challenges police have long faced in responding to crimes that require proactive rather than reactive methods.  It is clear that effective measures against terrorism are likely to rely heavily on the support of sworn police officers across the United States.